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Reactive Nitrogen in Mexico City and Its Relation to Ozone-precursor Sensitivity: Results from Photochemical Models : Volume 9, Issue 11 (02/06/2009)

By Sillman, S.

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Book Id: WPLBN0003994847
Format Type: PDF Article :
File Size: Pages 13
Reproduction Date: 2015

Title: Reactive Nitrogen in Mexico City and Its Relation to Ozone-precursor Sensitivity: Results from Photochemical Models : Volume 9, Issue 11 (02/06/2009)  
Author: Sillman, S.
Volume: Vol. 9, Issue 11
Language: English
Subject: Science, Atmospheric, Chemistry
Collections: Periodicals: Journal and Magazine Collection, Copernicus GmbH
Historic
Publication Date:
2009
Publisher: Copernicus Gmbh, Göttingen, Germany
Member Page: Copernicus Publications

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West, J. J., & Sillman, S. (2009). Reactive Nitrogen in Mexico City and Its Relation to Ozone-precursor Sensitivity: Results from Photochemical Models : Volume 9, Issue 11 (02/06/2009). Retrieved from http://worldebooklibrary.com/


Description
Description: University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA. We use results of a 3-D photochemistry/transport model for ozone formation in Mexico City during events in 1997 to investigate ambient concentrations of reactive nitrogen in relation to ozone-precursor sensitivity. Previous results from other locations suggest that ratios such as O3/NOy and H2O2/HNO3 might provide measurement-based indicators for NOx-sensitive or VOC-sensitive conditions. Mexico City presents a different environment due to its high concentrations of VOC and high level of pollutants in general. The model predicts a correlation between PAN and O3 with relatively high PAN/O3 (0.07), which is still lower than measured values. The model PAN is comparable with results from a model for Paris but much higher than were found in Nashville in both models and measurements. The difference is due in part to the lower temperature in Mexico City relative to Nashville. Model HNO3 in Mexico City is unusually low for an urban area and PAN/HNO3 is very high, probably due to the high ratio of reactivity-weighted VOC to NOx. The model predicts that VOC-sensitive chemistry in Mexico is associated with high NOx, NOy and NOx/NOy and with low O3/NOy and H2O2/HNO3, suggesting that these indicators work well for Mexico City. The relation between ozone-precursor sensitivity and either O3/NOz or O3/HNO3 is more ambiguous. VOC-sensitive conditions are associated with higher O3/HNO3 than would be found in NOx-sensitive conditions, but model O3/HNO3 associated with both NOx-sensitive and VOC-sensitive chemistry is higher in Mexico than in other cities. The model predicts a mixed pattern of ozone-precursor sensitivity in Mexico City, with VOC-sensitive conditions in the morning and NOx-sensitive in the afternoon, in contrast to results from other models for more recent events that predicted strongly VOC- sensitive conditions throughout the day. The difference in predicted ozone-precursor sensitivity is most likely due to different emission rates and to changes in emissions over time. The model with mixed sensitivity predicts much lower ambient NOx and NOx/NOy than the strongly VOC-sensitive model.

Summary
Reactive nitrogen in Mexico City and its relation to ozone-precursor sensitivity: results from photochemical models

Excerpt
Arriaga-Colina, J. L., West, J. J., Sosa, G., Escalona, S. S., Orduñez, R. M., and Cervantes, A. D. M.: Measurements of VOCs in Mexico City (1992–2001) and evaluation of VOCs and CO in the emissions inventory, Atmos. Environ., 38, 2523–2533, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.01.033, 2004.; Chow, J. C., Watson, J. G., Edgerton, S. A., and Vega, E.: Chemical composition of PM2.5 and PM10 in Mexico City during winter 1997, Sci. Total Environ., 287, 177–202, 2002.; Carter, W. P. L.: Documentation of the SAPRC-99 chemical mechanism for VOC reactivity, final report to California Air Resources Board, Contract 92–329 and 95–308, Calif. Air Res. Board, Sacramento, CA, 2000.; Cantrell, C. A., Lind, J. A., Shetter, R. E., Calvert, J. G., Goldan, P. D., Kuster, W., Fehsenfeld, F. C., Montzka, S. A., Parrish, D. D., Williams, E. J. , Buhr, M. P., Westberg, H. H., Allwine, G., and Martin, R.: Peroxy radicals in the ROSE experiment: Measurement and theory, J. Geophys. Res., 97, 20671–20686, doi:10.1029/92JD01727, 1992.; Fast, J. D. and Zhong, S.: Meteorological factors associated with inhomogeneous ozone concentrations within the Mexico City basin, J. Geophys. Res., 103(D15), 18927–18946, 1998.; Gaffney, J. S., Marley, N. A., Cunningham, M. N., and Doskey, P. V.: Measurements of peroxyacyl nitrates (PANS) in Mexico City: Implications for megacity air quality impacts on regional scales, Atmos. Environ., 33, 5003–5012, 1999.; Gao, D., Stockwell, W. R., and Milford, J. B.: Global uncertainty analysis of a regional-scale gas phase chemical mechanism, J. Geophys. Res., 101, 9071–9078, 1996.; Kleinman, L. I., Daum, P. H., Lee, J. H., Lee, Y.-N., Nunnermacker, L. J., Springston, S. R., Newman, L., Weinstein-Lloyd, J., and Sillman, S.: Dependence of ozone production on NO and hydrocarbons in the troposphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 24, 2299–2302, 1997.; Kleinman, L. I., Daum, P. H., Lee, Y.-N., Nunnermacker, L. J., Springston, S. R., Newman, L., Weinstein-Lloyd, J., and Rudolph, J.: A comparative study of ozone production in five US metropolitan areas, J. Geophys. Res., 110, D02301, doi:10.1029/2004JD005096, 2005.; Kleinman, L. I.: The dependence of tropospheric ozone production rate on ozone precursors, Atmos. Environ., 39, 575–586, 2005.; Lei, W., de Foy, B., Zavala, M., Volkamer, R., and Molina, L. T.: Characterizing ozone production in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area: a case study using a chemical transport model, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 1347–1366, 2007.; Lei, W., Zavala, M., de Foy, B., Volkamer, R., and Molina, L. T.: Characterizing ozone production and response under different meteorological conditions in Mexico City, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 7571–7581, 2008.; Marley, N. A., Gaffney, J. S., Ramos-Villegas, R., and Cárdenas González, B.: Comparison of measurements of peroxyacyl nitrates and primary carbonaceous aerosol concentrations in Mexico City determined in 1997 and 2003, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 2277–2285, 2007.; McKeen, S. A., Hsie, E.-Y., and Liu, S. C.: A study of the dependence of rural ozone on ozone precursors in the eastern United States, J. Geophys. Res., 96, 15377–15394, 1991.; Milford, J., Gao, D., Sillman, S. , Blossey, P., and Russell, A. G.: Total reactive nitrogen (NOy) as an indicator for the sensitivity of ozone to NO$_\rm x$ and hydrocarbons, J. Geophys. Res., 99, 3533–3542, 1994.; Molina, L. T., Kolb, C. E., de Foy, B., Lamb, B. K., Brune, W. H., Jimenez, J. L., Ramos-Villegas, R., Sarmiento, J., Paramo-Figueroa, V. H., Cardenas, B., Gutierrez-Avedoy, V., and Molina, M. J.: Air quality in North America's most populous city - overview of the MCMA-2003 campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 2447–2473, 2007.; Nunnermacker, L. J., Weinstein-Lloyd, J. B., Hillery, B., Giebel, B., Kleinman, L. I., Springston, S. R., Daum, P. H., Gaffney, J., Marley, N., and Huey, G.: Aircraft and ground-based measurements of hydroperoxides during the 2006 MILAGRO field campaign, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, 7619–7636, 2008.; Olszyna, K. J., Bailey, E. M., Simonaiti

 

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