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Status of Genetically Modified (Transgenic) Fish: Research and Application

By Dunham, Rex A.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000205236
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.2 MB
Reproduction Date: Available via World Wide Web.
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Title: Status of Genetically Modified (Transgenic) Fish: Research and Application  
Author: Dunham, Rex A.
Language: English
Subject: United Nations., Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO agriculture series, Agriculture
Collections: United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization Collection
Publication Date:
Publisher: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; Digitizer: Fao


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Dunham, R. A. (n.d.). Status of Genetically Modified (Transgenic) Fish: Research and Application. Retrieved from

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Excerpt: Department of Fisheries and Allied Aquacultures, Auburn University, Alabama, USA 36849 There are many ways to genetically modify fish including inbreeding, gynogenesis, androgenesis, selection, intraspecific crossbreeding, interspecific hybridization, polyploidy, sex reversal and breeding, nuclear transplantation and transgenesis. Cloned populations have been produced via gynogenesis and androgenesis (Dunham 2004 in press), but direct cloning of an individual fish of interest has not yet been accomplished. This review will focus upon transgenic fish. Techniques to produce transgenic fish Gene transfer research with fish began in the mid 1980?s utilizing microinjection (Zhu et al 1985, Chourrout et al. 1986, Dunham et al 1987). Zhu et al. (1985) published the first report of transgenes microinjected into the fertilized eggs of goldfish. In almost all fish gene transfer research, the foreign gene was microinjected into the cytoplasm of one-to- four cell embryos (Hayat 1989) as pronuclei are extremely difficult to visualize in live one-cell fish embryos. Ozato et al. (1986) used a slightly different approach, and injected the oocytes of the medaka, which had been removed from the ovaries nine hours before ovulation. The chicken delta-crystallin gene was injected and found in four of the eight medaka embryos examined (Ozato et al. 1986). An average of about 5% of the surviving microinjected embryos integrate the foreign DNA. Microinjection is a tedious and slow procedure (Powers et al. 1992) and can result in high egg mortality (Dunham et al. 1987). After the initial development of microinjection, new techniques such as electroporation, retroviral integration, liposomal-reverse-phase-evaporation, spermmediated transfer and high velocity microprojectile bombardment were developed (Chen and Powers 1990) that sometimes can more efficiently produce large quantities of transgenic individuals in a shorter time period.


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