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World Health Organization ; World Health Organization Offeset Publication No. 15: Community Water Supply and Excreta Disposal Situation in the Developing Countries a Commentary

By D. V. Subrahmanyam

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Book Id: WPLBN0000120805
Format Type: PDF eBook
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Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: World Health Organization ; World Health Organization Offeset Publication No. 15: Community Water Supply and Excreta Disposal Situation in the Developing Countries a Commentary  
Author: D. V. Subrahmanyam
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Public health, Wellness programs
Collections: Medical Library Collection, World Health Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: World Health Organization

Citation

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Subrahmanyam, D. V. (n.d.). World Health Organization ; World Health Organization Offeset Publication No. 15. Retrieved from http://worldebooklibrary.com/


Description
Medical Reference Publication

Excerpt
REVIEWERS Dr E. Becher, Pre-Investment Planning, Division of Environmental Health, World Health Organization, Geneva Mr J. M. G. van Damme, WHO International Reference Centre for Community Water Supply, The Hague, Netherlands Dr B. H. Dieterich, Director, Division of Environmental Health, World Health Organization, Geneva Mr E. Giroult, Basic Environmental Sanitation, WHO Regional Office for Europe, Copenhagen, Denmark Mr F. Kent, Chief, Pre-Investment Planning, Division of Environmental Health, World Health Organization, Geneva Mr L. Laugeri, Pre-Investment Planning, Division of Environmental Health, World Health Organization, Geneva Mr L. A. Orihuela, Chief, Community Water Supply and Sanitation, Division of Environmental Health, World Health Organization, Geneva Dr P. Roberts, WHO International Reference Centre for Wastes Disposal, Federal Institute for Water Resources and Water Pollution Control, Dffbendorf, Switzerland Mr A. K. Roy, Team Leader, Inter-country project SEAR0 0064 Community Water Supply and Sanitation, WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia, Delhi, India Mr H. R. Shipman, Water Supply Adviser, Public Utilities Department, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, Washington, D.C., United States of America Mr A. Tomassi, Regional Adviser in Environmental Health, WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, Manila, Philippines Dr Y. Watanabe, Bacterial Diseases, Division of Communicable Diseases, World Health Organization, Geneva Mr A. Wilson, Regional Adviser in Environmental Health, WHO Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo

Table of Contents
CONTENTS Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v 1 . INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 The problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Information needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 . REGIONAL AND GLOBAL INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.1 Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.2 Regional data for Latin America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.3 The 1962 WHO global survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.4 The 1970 WHO global survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 . WHAT THE 1970 SURVEY SHOWS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.1 Coverage of service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 3.2 Healthaspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3.3 Relationship to economic status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 3.4 Manpower needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 3.5 Criteria for providing community water supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.6 Constraints to progress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.7 Interdependence of constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 4 . FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO SUCCESSFUL PROGRAMMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.1 Communityparticipation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.2 Simple technology and standardization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.3 Governmentsupport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 4.4 Economics and financing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 4.5 Excreta disposal in congested urban and fringe areas . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 6 . SECOND UNITED NATIONS DEVELOPMENT DECADE TARGETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 7.1 National effort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 7.2 External assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 7.3 Concluding remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Annex 1 . List of tables presented in the World Health Statistics Report. 1973. Vol . 26. No . 11. depicting the community water supply and sewage disposal conditions in the developing countries as at 31December1970 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Annex 2 . Community water supply .c omparison of services 1962 and 1970 . . . . . . . 36 Annex 3 . Population served by excreta disposal facilities 31 December 1970 by type of service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39

 

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