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Epidemic/Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States : Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention, And Control

By Hughes, James M., Dr.

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Book Id: WPLBN0000118321
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.4 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005

Title: Epidemic/Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States : Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention, And Control  
Author: Hughes, James M., Dr.
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Medical research, Medical reports
Collections: Medical Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Hughes, M. D, J. M. (n.d.). Epidemic/Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States : Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention, And Control. Retrieved from http://worldebooklibrary.com/


Excerpt
Executive Summary: The epidemic/epizootic of West Nile (WN) virus in the northeastern United States in the summer and fall of 1999 was an unprecedented event, underscoring the ease with which emerging infectious pathogens can move into new geographic areas. The outbreak also raised the issue of the preparedness of many local, state and national public health agencies to deal with epidemics of vector-borne diseases in this country. Because it is unknown whether WN virus will be able to persist through the winter, whether it has already or will spread to new geographic locations, and what the public health and animal health implications of this introduction will be, it is important to proactively establish surveillance, prevention and control programs to prevent future WN virus epidemics in this country. Accordingly, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) co-sponsored a meeting of experts representing a wide range of disciplines (see Appendix A) to review the state of our knowledge about the epidemic/epizootic in the Northeast and to provide input and guidance on the kinds of programs that should be established to effectively monitor WN virus activity and to prevent potential future outbreaks of disease.

Table of Contents
Table of Contents Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Background/Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 I. SURVEILLANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 A. Ecologic Surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1. Avian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. Non-Human Mammals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 3. Mosquitoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 B. Surveillance for Human Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1. Clinical Syndromes to Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2. Types of Human Surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3. Specimens for Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 4. Surveillance Case Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 C. Geography and Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1. Northeastern United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2. Southern United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3. Western and Central United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 4. Other Areas of the Western Hemisphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 II. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 A. Serologic Laboratory Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 1. Human . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2. Animal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 B. Virologic Laboratory Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 1. Virus Isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2. Virus Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 C. Biocontainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1. Laboratory Safety Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2. Shipping of Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 D. Training and Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 1. Front-Line Arbovirus Laboratories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2. Training Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3. Biocontainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 III. PREVENTION AND CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 A. Public Outreach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 B. Mosquito Abatement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 C.

 

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