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Community-Driven Development : Lessons from the Sahel an Analytical Review

By Kumar, Nalini

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Book Id: WPLBN0000018332
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 2.9 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005
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Title: Community-Driven Development : Lessons from the Sahel an Analytical Review  
Author: Kumar, Nalini
Language: English
Subject: Economics, Finance & business, World Bank.
Collections: Economics Publications Collection
Publication Date:
Publisher: The World Bank


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Kumar, N. (n.d.). Community-Driven Development : Lessons from the Sahel an Analytical Review. Retrieved from


Summary 1. Participatory approaches to development have gained substantial support in the international community over the past quarter-century. During the 1990s, the World Bank also began to increase its emphasis on community participation in development and, after the World Development Report 2000/2001 highlighted the importance of participation to poverty reduction, the Bank intensified its support for community-driven development (CDD). The tremendous increase in lending in support of CDD projects in recent years is the main justification for the current study. CDD projects had a combined portfolio of $5.6 billion in new lending between fiscal 2000?02?more than $9.7 billion if investments in building an enabling environment for CDD activities are taken into account. Lending for CDD is projected to increase even further in the next few years. Therefore, early feedback to the institution on the effectiveness of the Bank?s strategic approach for CDD and the impact of Bank-supported CDD interventions at the community level is desirable. The CDD approach puts communities in charge of their own development in order to harness their considerable potential and social capital to improve the livelihood of the people. Today, international donors see potential in the participatory approach to contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. -- 2. This desk review was undertaken to lay the groundwork for an OED evaluation of Bank-supported CDD efforts. There is a major methodological challenge present in evaluating the Bank?s CDD portfolio: finding the right tools to evaluate a portfolio that is not only largely ongoing but that has also evolved significantly over the years. Most of the current CDD projects have evolved from the Bank?s experience with community-based development (CBD) projects. Today, projects with higher levels of participation?that is, those that collaborate and empower or are substantially ?driven? by the community?are understood to be CDD. They are distinguished from those that are considered to be CBD, where less control over decisions and resources is given, but which are nevertheless participatory. In the past, CBD was used as a broader term that covered all four levels of participation (information sharing, consultation, collaboration, and empowerment). Given the complexity of the subject, as a first step it was decided to undertake a limited desk review of the Bank?s assistance for participatory community development efforts in the 1990s in 10 countries in the Sahel region of West Africa. In the 10 sample countries, the focus of this review, combined lending for CBD/CDD projects is projected to increase from 21 percent of total lending in 1996 to 47 percent of total lending in fiscal 2003. -- 3. The desk study is based on a literature review, assessment of a sample of 32 projects, Quality Assurance Group (QAG) and OED reports and other documentation, and interviews with Bank staff. Using the experience of the Sahel, the desk review identified the basic development objective behind participatory approaches. It further traced the significant changes that have occurred in the Bank?s approach to community participation and in the design of CBD and CDD interventions. Five broad changes in the Bank?s approach are identified: ...


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