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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epidemic Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States : Revised Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention, And Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epidemic Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States : Re

By Department of Health and Human Services

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Book Id: WPLBN0000002055
Format Type: PDF eBook
File Size: 0.7 MB
Reproduction Date: 2005

Title: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epidemic Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States : Revised Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention, And Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epidemic Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States : Re  
Author: Department of Health and Human Services
Volume:
Language: English
Subject: Health., Medical research, Medical reports
Collections: Medical Library Collection
Historic
Publication Date:
Publisher: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Citation

APA MLA Chicago

Health And Human Services, D. O. (n.d.). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epidemic Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States : Revised Guidelines for Surveillance, Prevention, And Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Epidemic Epizootic West Nile Virus in the United States : Re. Retrieved from http://worldebooklibrary.com/


Excerpt
Executive Summary: In late summer 1999, the first domestically acquired human cases of West Nile (WN) encephalitis were documented in the U.S. The discovery of virus-infected, overwintering mosquitoes during the winter of 1999-2000 predicted renewed virus activity for the following spring and launched early season vector-control and disease surveillance in New York City and the surrounding areas. These surveillance efforts were focused on identifying and documenting WN virus infections in birds, mosquitoes and equines as sentinel animals that could predict the occurrence of human disease. By the end of the 2000 transmission season, WN virus activity had been identified in a 12 state area from Vermont and New Hampshire in the north to North Carolina in the south. In 2000 there were 21 humans cases, 63 horses, 4,304 birds (78 species including 1999 data), and 480 mosquito pools (14 species) reported with WN virus. This annual human case incidence now ranks WN virus second only to LaCrosse encephalitis virus as the leading cause of reported human arboviral encephalitis in the U.S.

Table of Contents
Table of Contents Executive Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 I. SURVEILLANCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 A. Ecologic Surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1. Avian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2. Equines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 3. Mosquitoes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 B. Surveillance for Human Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 1. Recent Experience . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2. Types of Surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 3. Specimens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 4. Surveillance Case Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 C. Geography and Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 1. Northeastern United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2. Southern United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 3. Western and Central United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4. Other Areas of the Western Hemisphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 II. LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 A. Biocontainment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 1. Laboratory Safety Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2. Shipping of Agents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 B. Serologic Laboratory Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 1. Human . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2. Animal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 C. Virologic Laboratory Diagnosis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 1. Virus Isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2. Virus Detection in Tissues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 D. Training and Infrastructure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 1. State and Local Arbovirus Laboratories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2. Training Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 III. PREVENTION AND CONTROL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 A. Surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 1. Larval Mosquito Surveillance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

 

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