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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 36, Winter 2006: Volume 36, Winter 2006

By: Us Army

...re- Winter 2006-07 5 Lieutenant Colonel Raymond A. Millen is the Political Military Cell Chief in Com- bined Forces Command-Afghanistan until August 2... ...ved in Kabul from July through November 2003 on the staff of the Office of Military Cooperation-Afghanistan. He has published articles in sev- eral sc... ...Legacy (Brasseys, 2002). Lieutenant Colonel Millen is a graduate of the US Military Academy and the US Army Command and General Staff College, holds M... ...tented with their present condition, as also all men that are ambitious of military command, are inclined to continue the causes of war, and to stir u... ...shed government takes counter- measures, usually and predominantly through military force. The individual is once again caught in the middle, thrust i... ...ould likely prove a powerful disincentive against joining the gov- ernment military forces. The young males will thus either go into hiding, try to ke... ...sh a strong, per- manent presence in the area (unlikely in view of limited military resources), the citizens are likely to offer minimal assistance, k... ...9-13. 8. Ibid., pp. 76, 106. 9. Two hundred ninety-six graduates of the US Military Academy joined the Confederate forces; 800 re- mained loyal to the... ...rces; 800 re- mained loyal to the Union. Bugle Notes (West Point, N.Y.: US Military Academy, 1978), p. 260. 10. Hobbes, p. 61. 11. Roger Trinquier emb...

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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 36, Summer 2006: Volume 36, Summer 2006

By: Us Army

... to be at least plausible, it should follow that the current emphasis on a military transfor- mation privileging skills in stabilization duties is of ... ...e primary object in counterinsurgency is protection of the public, not the military defeat of terrorist-insurgents.” effected only from within those ... ...primary object in counterinsurgency is pro- tection of the public, not the military defeat of terrorist-insurgents. The latter will succeed only if th... ...hines will be em- ployed because they exist, and the more impressive their military-technical performance, the more likely we are to exaggerate the im... ...Nigel Aylwin-Foster, “Changing the Army for Counterinsurgency Operations,” Military Review, 85 (November-December 2005), 2-15; Andrew J. Bacevich, The... ...nderstanding per- hapscomparableonlytothatoftheColdWar.Ourongoingpolitical-military actionstoachievesuccessinIraqandAfghanistanaresimplysubordinateef-... ...pfulasweexaminethecontextofwartodayand assess the effectiveness of today’s military to engage in—and win—these wars.Hammes’descriptionprovidesusanalte... ...two Intifadas in Israel not only failed to significantly affect mainstream military thinking, but they often turned out ratherbadlyforWesternarmies.)T... ...on Warfare “uses all available networks—political, economic, so- cial, and military—to convince the enemy’s political decisionmakers that their strate...

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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 36, Autumn 2006: Volume 36, Autumn 2006

By: Us Army

...ere is no standing design chartering broad, integrated American political, military, and eco- nomic action to secure the state’s position and influenc... ...ognized that employment of the classical instruments of power—particularly military power—in tradi- Autumn 2006 7 tional combinations and according t... ... nation’s approach to broad national security issues, national defense and military affairs, home- land security, terrorism, the wars in Iraq and Afgh... ...yment of physical, political, and economic “vio- lence” rather than direct military confrontation. Without some detailed cross- government considerati... ...ely easy one for American strategists. America’s preponderant economic and military might has pro- duced a unipolar international structure, which has... ...ch in turn helps shape decisions affecting long-term investments involving military forces assistance programs, and both intel- ligence and diplomatic... ...he American invasion and subsequent operations in Iraq have exposed the US military’slimitationsandinstigatedchangesthatwillmakeitmoreprepared tomeett... ...ceinthenewcentury,defenseplan- ners disregarded their significance. The US military was conditioned by decadesofpreparationforconventionalinterstatewa... ...withhigh-technologyconventionalwarfarearepara- mount for ensuring American military readiness in the future. To meet these challengestheUSmilitaryneed...

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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 35, Winter 2005: Volume 35, Winter 2005

By: Us Army

...nstead be an engine of continued transformation. The need to transform our military has elevated the role of the QDR from a tool of periodic refinemen... ...ory, we can see that periods of concerted national effort to transform the military have tracked a cyclical pattern: New challenges lead the Winter 20... ...aced with a global threat from the Soviet Union, we had to trans- form the military to integrate nuclear and conventional forces, dramatically increas... ...rked on a series of competitive strategies meant to expose fissures in the military establish- ment and strategic posture of the Soviet Union, in the ... ...n in the structure, posture, weapon systems, and tactical doctrines of our military. Since 9/11, the Defense Department has gained sufficient insight ... ...ration nearly five years ago, President Bush charged it with preparing the military for the challenges of the 21st century. This was to be no easy tas... ...and the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy on national security policy, military strategy, and defense policy. gravity of the risks we face. It al... ...eedom, Iraqi Freedom represented another milestone in the evolution of our military, replete with lessons for the future. Under Secretary Rumsfeld’s l... ...05 QDR with the bene- fits of a new National Defense Strategy and National Military Strategy 2 and a variety of studies and insights that have been de...

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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 35, Summer 2005: Volume 35, Summer 2005

By: Us Army

...ties have been laid low by more primitive and virile enemies with superior military institutions and a stronger will to fight. The end of the Cold War... ...nd for the most primal of reasons: War isn’t going anywhere. Political and military leaders are notoriously averse to theory, but if there is a theori... ...rations, peace- keeping missions, counter-drug and anti-terror operations, military occupa- tions, shows of force, and a host of other activities whic... ...s, shows of force, and a host of other activities which involve the use of military forces. Implicit in this usage is reciprocity; an unanswered, one-... ...s usage is reciprocity; an unanswered, one-time cruise missile attack is a military operation and a use of force, but hardly a war. However ineffectua... ...rorism and transit points for the flow of arms. While the West can conduct military operations against transnational threats, as we have seen in Yemen... ...ic diplomacy, and information-sharing arenas and only sec- ondarily in the military sphere. This is an important point. States are not waging war when... ... is to establish the kind of war on which they are embarking.” 7 And while military force is only one weapon among many, with diplomatic, economic, po... ...ing altogether different from before is overpowering. Indeed, advocates of military transformation in the United States assert that technology has red...

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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 35, Spring 2005: Volume 35, Spring 2005

By: Us Army

...hetotalUSintelligencebudgetintheDefenseDepartment. Improving—Not Degrading—Military Intelligence Assomeseeit,themilitary’sshareoftheoverallintelligenc... ...ipline com- pared to the high-technology systems and platforms used by the military. Whenweputamilitaryintelligencesatelliteintoorbit,theintelligenceb... ...ectsintelligencefromagreatvarietyofplatforms.Inaddition to satellites, the military services use ships, submarines, aircraft, UAVs, groundvehicles,and... ...lectively,theseeightmembersarehuge,comprisingtensof thousands of uniformed military and civilian personnel, and multibillion- dollarbudgets.Howsomeone... ...gle commander. INTCOMwouldbethesinglepointofcontactfortheDNIindealing with military intelligence. The INTCOM Commander would have the dual responsibil... ...d efforts, vastly improved coordination, and—above all—accountability. The military already applies this principle very success- fullytoseveralfunctio... ...ions Command, or to any other unified com- mand. The fact is, whenever the military has created either a functional or a geographicunifiedcommand,weha... ...and,wehaveseenabetterresultingfocusonthemis- sion, better support from the military services, and improved capabilities. A unifiedcommandforintelligen... ...ubcommitteestructureintheSenateSelectCom- mitteeonIntelligence. Organize military intelligence by bringing unity of command to theenormousdefenseint...

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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 35, Autumn 2005: Volume 35, Autumn 2005

By: Us Army

...and analyze the Nine Prin- ciples of Reconstruction and Development to the military community. In a time of increasing collaboration between the two o... ...ng collaboration between the two organizations, it is impor- tant that the military gain a better understanding of how USAID and develop- ment agencie... ... three pillars of national security is increased collaboration between the military and development communities. Situations like Afghanistan and Iraq—... ...ponse—are becoming increasingly common. More significantly, the success of military strategy and the success of development policy have become mutuall... ... promise of development as an alternative to violence. Moreover, while the military is well placed to undertake certain types of stabilization project... ...certain types of stabilization projects, civilian agencies can relieve the military of many reconstruction and development projects which it is not we... ...s which it is not well suited to oversee. Thus, it is im- portant that the military gains a clearer understanding not only of how USAID implements a p... ...ch are in- scribed in modern Army field manuals. 5 In the past decade, the military has at- tempted to forge a closer theoretical link between post-co... ... theoretical link between post-conflict development 6 Parameters work and military interventions. In the mid-1990s, it established the six princi- pl...

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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 34, Winter 2004: Volume 34, Winter 2004

By: Us Army

...ituation. It has done so through the considered application of threats and military force on the one hand and assorted incentives on the other. The wa... ...ncy. Finally, it would require cutting- edge technology and highly trained military forces. The ultimate goal should always be 100 percent enemy inact... ...e, cumulative deterrence is based on the simulta- neous use of threats and military force over the course of an extended conflict. Some scholars argue... ...failure of immediate deter- rence, which causes the defender to consider a military response. 13 Using Morgan’s definitions of general deterrence and ... ...ssue at stake re- 8 Parameters mains unresolved and there is at least one military exchange within a 25-year period. 14 Examples include Israel and J... ...wo levels. On the macro level, it seeks to create an image of overwhelming military supremacy. On the micro level, it relies on specific military resp... ...Arab states of their growing inability to counter Israel’s ever-increasing military capabilities, Israel’s cumulative deterrence Winter 2004-05 9 Clas... ...ee key components. The first component consists of the impressive array of military victories that the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) have accrued agains... ...’s nuclear capability. Figure 2 provides a graphic representation of these military dimensions of Israeli deterrence. 10 Parameters Figure 2. The Mili...

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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 34, Summer 2004: Volume 34, Summer 2004

By: Us Army

...ats at some point in the future. At the same time, in a globalizing world, military-capable technol- ogy is increasingly fungible, and thus potential ... ...achieve parity or even superiority in niche technologies tailored to their military ambitions. For us and for them, those technologies facilitate in- ... ...nologies facilitate in- creasingly rapid, simultaneous, and non-contiguous military operations. Such operations increasingly characterize today’s conf... ...te that neither the duration nor the character of even the most successful military campaign is readily predictable. Especially in wars intended to li... ...ons that prompted the conflict. Long after the defeat of Taliban and Iraqi military forces, we continue to wage just such campaigns in Afghanistan and... ...re a framework for learning and action than a rigid template. Adapting our military decisionmaking process will allow us to capitalize on the American... ...knowledge and experience, pro- viding an authoritative statement about how military forces do business and a common lexicon with which to describe it.... ... describe it. As it has evolved since the Cold War, Army doctrine portrays military operations as a seamless and dynamic combination of offense, defen... ...it is merely a gateway to deci- sion, not a roadmap. 20 Parameters The US military enjoys an immense array of capabilities that are useless if we ove...

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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 34, Spring 2004: Volume 34, Spring 2004

By: Us Army

...n was in “cleanup” or “mop up” phase. 1 Overshadowed by the swift American military victory in Iraq, the images of airmobile troops and special operat... ... has a unique ethnic makeup, geography, social struc- ture, economics, and military factors. It is by no means analogous to Iraq in any way. Imprecise... ...ans, the Mid- dle East, and Afghanistan. He currently teaches in the Royal Military College War Studies Programme, and is the Strategic Studies Adviso... ...e same time building up “a capa- ble, centralized, and balanced indigenous military force.” 6 The International Crisis Group, like the others, argues ... ... since January 2002, and that the ability of the Taliban to launch sizable military actions has substantially de- creased from company-sized operation... ...t it to. We should expect, however, that there will be no more large-scale military operations by enemy forces—that is, anything larger than a ten-man... ...an originally anticipated, to form a multi-ethnic national army. The other military power in Afghani- stan, however, is collectively wielded by the Af... ... during Operation Anaconda in 2002. It is critical that the members of any military force operating in Afghan- istan understand, to the extent possibl... ...generally. In many cases, sol- diers from OEF and their accompanying civil-military cooperation efforts are more effective, but this state of affairs ...

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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 33, Winter 2003: Volume 33, Winter 2003

By: Us Army

...Soldiers of the State: Reconsidering American Civil-Military Relations RICHARD D. HOOKER, JR. I n American academe today the do... ...CHARD D. HOOKER, JR. I n American academe today the dominant view of civil-military relations is sternly critical of the military, asserting that civi... ...s sternly critical of the military, asserting that civilian control of the military is dangerously eroded. 1 Though tension clearly exists in the rela... ...urate and badly overwrought. Far from over- stepping its bounds, America’s military operates comfortably within consti- tutional notions of separated ... ...rinciple of ci- vilian control. Indeed, an active and vigorous role by the military in the policy process is and always has been essential to the comm... ... defense. A natural starting point for any inquiry into the state of civil-military relations in the US today is to define what is meant by the terms ... ...y relations in the US today is to define what is meant by the terms “civil-military relations” and “civilian control.” Broadly defined, “civil-militar... ...ulated. Similarly, “civilian control” means simply the degree to which the military’s civilian masters can enforce their authority on the military ser... ...r authority on the military services. 2 Clarifying the vocabulary of civil-military relations sheds an inter- esting light on the current, highly char...

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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 9 ; Winter 1979: Volume 9, Winter 1979

By: Us Army
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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 9 ; Summer 1979: Volume 9, Summer 1979

By: Us Army
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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 9 ; Spring 1979: Volume 9, Spring 1979

By: Us Army
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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 9 ; Autumn 1979: Volume 9, Autumn 1979

By: Us Army
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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 8 ; Winter 1978: Volume8, Winter 1978

By: Us Army
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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 8 ; Spring 1978: Volume 8, Spring 1978

By: Us Army
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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 8 ; Autumn 1978: Volume 8, Autumn 1978

By: Us Army

...y policy has been consistent with that larger purpose. We have maintained military forces and, when necessary, applied them against adversaries to ... ...rocess of waging World War II, we became indisputably the predominant 2 military force on the globe. From 1945 until our withdrawal from the Vietn... ...rmed forces. We are still, to be sure, potentially the world's strongest military power, for we have a large populace, a highly skilled and talent... ...e strength, and an Air Force of unprecedented destructive potential. Our military posture is perhaps not so strong as that of our principal potenti... ...ost dangerous threat by the Soviet Union and its allies is the threat of military attack or, perhaps more likely, political "Finlandization" throug... ...litary attack or, perhaps more likely, political "Finlandization" through military pressure. The deterrent, therefore, must include credible readin... ...es, in Alexandria, Virginia. He has written extensively for professional military journals, including Military Review, Army, and Parameters. In 19...

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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 33, Summer 2003: Volume 33, Summer 2003

By: Us Army

...antage,weshouldbeginwithalookatthe historical roots of asymmetric warfare. Military affairs are replete with cam- paigns won by forces with capabiliti... ...Vietnam.AfterstudyattheUniversityofWisconsin-MadisonhetaughthistoryattheUS MilitaryAcademy,andhesubsequentlyreceivedhisdoctorateinhistoryfromWisconsin... ...HollandandBelgiumgaveagood account of themselves. In the late 1930s French military thinkers like General J.B.E.Estienneandthen-ColonelCharlesdeGaulle... ...ionveryfamiliartoAfghanfightersoverthecenturies,arela- tively conventional military force on the ground attempting to chase down groups and individual... ...rorists Nowthattheunconventionalthreatissocloselylinkedtonationalde- fense,militaryleadersmustbetrainedtorecognizethewiderproblem.Military organizatio... ...t the operational and strategic levels demand a new doctrinal context. The military cannot be savedtoonlyfightthenextworldwar.Leadersneedtobetrainedto... ...abilitypresentsanewandperplexingproblem. Moral conviction and conventional military efficiency alone will not allowustounderstandandcounterathreatthat... ...do we counterathreatthatseekstoobviatetheadvantageswepossessinconventional militarypower? 9 Torespondproperly,weneedtoaddressthefullrangeofmilitaryact... ...it,instaging,inonwardmovement?Inboththenationalinfrastruc- ture and in the military infrastructure in the field, what are the vulnerabilities whereane...

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Parameters : The U.S. Army's Senior Professional Journal ; Volume 33, Spring 2003: Volume 33, Spring 2003

By: Us Army

...ss on 29 January 2002, his remarks before the student body of the Virginia Military Institute on 17 April, and his address to the graduat- ing class a... ...Institute on 17 April, and his address to the graduat- ing class at the US Military Academy at West Point on 1 June. The Bush Adminis- tration now has... ...termined to acquire weapons of mass destruction, along with other advanced military tech- nology, to be used as threats or offensively to achieve the ... ...nt.” 20 In contrast, preventive war is “a war initiated in the belief that military conflict, while not imminent, is inevitable, and that to delay wou... ...on of the inevitability of hostilities and the desire to strike before the military balance becomes less favorable (i.e., before Saddam gets nuclear w... ...Iraq at least, the United States has an estab- lished record of preventive military operations. As noted in 1994 by Richard Haass, who is now head of ... ...rikes—strikes that quickly and conclusively preempt the expected offensive military actions. Intentions, of course, are notoriously dif- ficult to gau... ...ce 9/11 (which renders preemption moot), and we are committed to continued military operations against that enemy and its Taliban allies in Afghanista... ...and a US war against Iraq in- evitably will divert strategic attention and military resources away not only from the deteriorating situation in Afghan...

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