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Report on certain aspects of space environment simulation (expose de synthese sur certains aspects de la simulation de l'environment spatial)

By: Choumoff, S

Supplemental catalog subcollection information: NASA Publication Collection; Astrophysics and Technical Documents; Function and life expectancy of various space environment simulators...

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Plos One : Excess Mortality, Causes of Death and Life Expectancy in 270,770 Patients with Recent Onset of Mental Disorders in Denmark, Finland and Sweden, Volume 7

By: Thomas Burne

Description : These alarming figures call for action in order to prevent the high mortality.

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Preliminary Progress Report to Back Bay Planning and Development Corporation on Study of Foundation Conditions in Back Bay, Boston, Massachusetts

By: Back Bay Planning and Development Corporation

outlines the progress of the study of foundation conditions in the Back Bay area of Boston and indicates preliminary conclusions; briefly describes soil and groundwater conditions and estimates life expectancy of existing foundations; formulates general foundation design principles to guide future development; includes a detailed outline for a proposed in-depth study; copies of this item were in the BRA collection.....

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Plos One : Decelerating Mortality Rates in Older Ages and Its Prospects Through Lee-carter Approach, Volume 7

By: Giuseppe Biondi-zoccai

Description : The present study attempts to study the age pattern mortality and prospects through Lee-Carter approach. The objectives of the study are to examine the trend of mortality decline and life expectancy. Contemporaneously, we have projected life expectancy up to 2025, projecting ASDR using Lee-Carter method. Life table aging rate (LAR) used to estimate the rate of mortality deceleration. Overtime, LAR increased and during recent decade it remained more or less unchanged. By age, LAR significant increased in the oldest of old. The slope is steepest in the oldest of old in the recent decade. The rates of mortality increased in oldest of old as the age group is more vulnerable to chronic disease and vulnerable to identifiable risk factors for virtually every disease, marked by senility. The analysis revealed that the level of mortality is not declining but rate of acceleration is declining and is further expected to decline. By the year 2025, the age specific death rates for the age group 5–9 and 10–14 will go below one per thousand.Life expectancy will attained as high as 73 and 79 years for male and female and is further ex...

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Influence of Turbidity and Clouds on Satellite Total Ozone Data Over Madrid (Spain) : Volume 28, Issue 7 (14/07/2010)

By: D. Loyola; E. Hernandez; M. Antón; J. L. Camacho

Description: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología (AEMET), Madrid, Spain. This article focuses on the comparison of the total ozone column data from three satellite instruments; Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometers (TOMS) on board the Earth Probe (EP), Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board AURA and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) on board ERS/2, with ground-based measurement recorded by a well calibrated Brewer spectrophotometer located in Madrid during the period 1996–2008. A cluster classification based on solar radiation (global, direct and diffuse), cloudiness and aerosol index allow selecting hazy, cloudy, very cloudy and clear days. Thus, the differences between Brewer and satellite total ozone data for each cluster have been analyzed. The accuracy of EP-TOMS total ozone data is affected by moderate cloudiness, showing a mean absolute bias error (MABE) of 2.0%. In addition, the turbidity also has a significant influence on EP-TOMS total ozone data with a MABE ~1.6%. Those data are in contrast with clear days with MABE ~1.2%. The total ozone data derived from the OMI instrument show clear bias at clear and ...

Antón, M., Loyola, D., Navascúes, B., and Valks, P.: Comparison of GOME total ozone data with ground data from the Spanish Brewer spectroradiometers, Ann. Geophys., 26, 401–412, doi:10.5194/angeo-26-401-2008, 2008.; Antón, M., Loyola, D., López, M., Vilaplana, J. M., Bañón, M., Zimmer, W., and Serrano, A.: Comparison of GOME-2/MetOp total ozone data with Brewer spectroradiometer data over the Iberian Peninsula, Ann. Geophys., 27, 1377–1386, doi:10.5194/angeo-27-1377-2009, 2009a.; Antón, M., López, M., Vilaplana, J. M., Kroon, M., McPeters, R. D., Bañón, M., and Serrano, A.: Validation of OMI-TOMS and OMI-DOAS total ozone column using five Brewer spectroradiometers at the Iberian peninsula, J. Geophys. Res., 114, D14307, doi:10.1029/2009JD012003, 2009b.; Antón, M., Vilaplana, J. M., Kroon, M., Serrano, A., Parias, M., Cancillo, M. L., and de la Morena, B.: The empirically corrected EP-TOMS total ozone data against Brewer measurements at El Arenosillo (Southwestern Spain), IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 48(7), 3039–3045, 2010.; Balis, D., Lambert, J. C., van Roozendael, M., Spurr, R., Loyola, D., Livschitz, Y., Valks, P., Amiridis,...

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Plos One : Active Cognitive Lifestyle is Associated with Positive Cognitive Health Transitions and Compression of Morbidity from Age Sixty-five, Volume 7

By: Richard Fielding

Description : In those without severe cognitive impairment, different aspects of cognitive lifestyle predict positive cognitive transitions over time, and in those with severe cognitive impairment, a reduced life-expectancy. An active cognitive lifestyle is therefore linked to compression of cognitive morbidity in late life....

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Socioeconomic Characteristics of the Abalone Fishery Along the West Coast of the Baja California Peninsula, Mexico

Document Series: http://biodiversitylibrary.org/oai

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Plos One : Estimation of Hiv-testing Rates to Maximize Early Diagnosis-derived Benefits at the Individual and Population Level, Volume 7

By: D. William Cameron

Description : To increase testing rate of undiagnosed HIV population by two-fold in middle-high income settings will minimize early mortality during initiation of treatment and global mortality rate as well as maximize life expectancy. Our results highlight the impact of achieving early diagnosis and the importance of strongly work on improving HIV testing rates....

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Caught Pupae from North West Frontier Province, Pakistan.

Abstract: ABSTRACT: Age specific life tables were compiled for 3 cohorts of Cx. quinquefasciatus emerging from wild-caught pupae collected during autumn at Peshawar, North West Frontier Province, Pakistan and held in a room whose mean temperature ranged from 19 to 25 C and relative humidity ranged from 79 to 92%. Female life expectancy at emergence was 74.1 days, which was significantly longer than males, 30.0 days. The net reproductive rate was 58.6 females per female per generation, the innate rate of increase was 0.081 females per female and the generation time was 50.5 days. These results were compared with those presented for other geographic strains of Cx. quinquefasciatus....

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Plos One : Long-term Effects of Statin Treatment in Elderly People ; Extended Follow-up of the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk Prosper, Volume 8

By: Stefan Kiechl

Description : Pravastatin treatment of elderly high-risk subjects for 3.2 years provided long-term protection against CHD events and CHD mortality. However, this was not associated with any increase in life expectancy, possibly due to competing mortality with deaths from other causes. There was no evidence of long-term increased risk of cancer....

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Estimated Life Expectancy at Birth in Years, By Race and Sex : Death-Registration States, 1900–28, And United States, 1929–2002

By: Department of Health and Human Services

Alaska included in 1959 and Hawaii in 1960. 2Prior to 1970, data for the black population are not available. Data shown for 1900 -- 69 are for the nonwhite population. See ‘‘Technical Notes.’’ 3Deaths based on a 50-percent sample. 4Figures by race exclude data for residents of New Jersey; see ‘‘Technical Notes.’’......

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Plos One : Pneumocystis Jirovecii Pneumonia in Tropical and Low and Middle Income Countries ; a Systematic Review and Meta-regression, Volume 8

By: Sten H. Vermund

Description : There is a positive relationship between GDP and risk of PCP diagnosis. Although failure to diagnose infection in poorer countries may contribute to this, we also hypothesise that poverty exposes at-risk patients to a wide range of infections and that the relatively non-pathogenic P. jirovecii is therefore under-represented. As LMIC develop economically they eliminate the conditions underlying transmission of virulent infection : P. jirovecii, ubiquitous in all settings, then becomes a greater relative threat....

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Women in Agriculture Environment and Rural Production

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: The population of the Republic of Maldives was 2X2 000 persons in 19911 (FAO. SIDS 1(99) of which 48.8 percent were women (ESCAP 19991. At 2.X percen t in 19?!5 ... 199l!, the Maldives has one of me highest population growth rates among developing countries in the Asi a-Pacific region. The population is young: almost half of the population is under 15 yea rs; 52.5 percent is in the working age group (15-M years} and just ].5 percent is 65 years or older. Life expectancy for both men and women is 70 years (ADB 2UOI). The sex ratio is W5 men per 100 women (Fi fth National Developme nt Plan, Gove rnment of the Maldives], Tota l pop ulation is projected to reach] 7] DOD oy 2010 1ESCA PiWID 19?19)....

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An Improved Tropospheric No2 Retrieval for Omi Observations in the Vicinity of Mountainous Terrain : Volume 2, Issue 2 (29/07/2009)

By: K. F. Boersma; R. Dirksen; D. Brunner; P. Wang; Y. Zhou

Description: Empa, Swiss Federal Lab. for Materials Testing and Research, Dübendorf, Switzerland. We present an approach to reduce topography-related errors of vertical tropospheric columns (VTC) of NO2 retrieved from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) in the vicinity of mountainous terrain. This is crucial for reliable estimates of air pollution levels over our particular area of interest, the Alpine region and the adjacent planes, where the Dutch OMI NO2 product (DOMINO) exhibits significant biases due to the coarse resolution of surface parameters used in the retrieval. Our approach replaces the coarse-gridded surface pressures by accurate pixel-average values using a high-resolution topography data set, and scales the a priori NO2 profiles accordingly. NO2 VTC reprocessed in this way for the period 2006–2007 suggest that NO2 over the Po Valley in Italy and over the Swiss plateau is underestimated by DOMINO by about 15–20% in winter and 5% in summer under clear-sky conditions (cloud radiance fraction <0.5). A sensitivity analysis shows that these seasonal diff...

Acarreta, J. R., De Haan, J. F., and Stammes, P.: Cloud pressure retrieval using the O$_2-$O2absorption band at 477 nm, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D05204, doi:10.1029/2003JD003915, 2004.; ATBD GDP 4.0: Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document for GOME Total Column Densities of Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide, UPAS/GDOAS: GDP 4.0, ERSE-DTEX-EOPGTN-04-0007, Iss./Rev. 1/A, 2004.; Bertram, T. H., Heckel, A., Richter, A., Burrows, J. P., and Cohen, R. C.: Satellite measurements of daily variations in soil NOx emissions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(24), L24812 doi:10.1029/2005GL024640, 2005.; Blond, N., Boersma, K. F., Eskes, H. J., van der A, R. J., Van Roozendael, M., De Smedt, I., Bergametti, G., and Vautard, R.: Intercomparison of SCIAMACHY nitrogen dioxide observations, in-situ measurements and air quality modeling results over Western Europe, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D10311, doi:10.1029/2006JD007277, 2007.; Boersma, K. F., Eskes, H. J., and Brinksma, E. J.: Error analysis for tropospheric NO2 retrieval from space, J. Geophys. Res., 109, D04311, doi:10.1029/2003JD003962, 2004.; Boersma, K. F., Eskes, H. J., Veefkind, J....

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Report of Findings on Methodologi and Data Issues

By: Department of Health and Human Services

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Contents 1. Summary Measures of Population Health ........................................................ 1 1.1Introduction............................................................................... 1 1.2OverviewoftheRoleofSummaryMeasuresinHealth............................................ 2 1.2.1Theprocessofpopulationhealthchange................................................... 2 1.2.2Pastuseofsummarymeasures........................................................... 3 1.3 Potential Summary Measures Suggested for Healthy People 2010 ................................... 5 1.4AvailabilityofDataforEstimatingtheProposedMeasures......................................... 6 References................................................................................... 7 2. Methods for Calculating Healthy Life Expectancy................................................. 8 2.1Introduction............................................................................... 8 2.2TheLifeTableTechnique.................................................................... 8 2.2.1Estimatingtheaverageexpectationoflife.......................................

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Plos One : the Emergence of Three Human Development Clubs, Volume 8

By: Rodrigo Huerta-quintanilla

Description : We examine the joint distribution of levels of income per capita, life expectancy, and years of schooling across countries in 1960 and in 2000. In 1960 countries were clustered in two groups: a rich, highly educated, high longevity ‘‘developed’’ group and a poor, less educated, high mortality, ‘‘underdeveloped’’ group. By 2000 however we see the emergence of three groups: one underdeveloped group remaining near 1960 levels, a developed group with higher levels of education, income, and health than in 1960, and an intermediate group lying between these two. This finding is consistent with both the ideas of a new ‘‘middle income trap’’ that countries face even if they escape the ‘‘low income trap’’, as well as the notion that countries which escaped the poverty trap form a temporary ‘‘transition regime’’ along their path to the ‘‘developed’’ group....

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Characteristics of Hospice Care Discharges and Their Length of Service : United States, 2000

By: Gina M. Martin

The eligibility requirements for hospice care vary depending on who is providing the service. The requirements for most programs are based on those of the Medicare Hospice Benefit (MHB), but many hospices have broader eligibility criteria so persons not eligible for the MHB can be admitted for care. The MHB can be used by persons who are certified by a physician as having a terminal illness (that is, a life expectancy of6 months or less). Because predicting life expectancy is an inexact science, a person may be re-certified for the MHB indefinitely as long as he/she meets the Medicare eligibility criteria (2,4–7)....

Contents Abstract.................................................................................................. 1 Highlights................................................................................................. 1 Introduction............................................................................................... 1 Methods.................................................................................................. 2 Results................................................................................................... 4 PatientCharacteristics..................................................................................... 4 ServicesandServiceProviders.............................................................................. 4 FunctionalStatus......................................................................................... 4 Diagnoses............................................................................................... 5 Length-of-ServiceMeasures................................................................................ 5 SummaryandDiscussion.....................................

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Plos One : the Association Between Oxytocin and Social Capital, Volume 7

By: Petter Holme

Description : Women who perceived low cognitive social capital showed higher oxytocin levels, while structural social capital showed inverse-U shape association with oxytocin. No association between oxytocin and social capital was found among men. Further study is needed to elucidate why oxytocin was inversely associated with cognitive social capital only among women....

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La Coordination Del Sector Forestal en Africa Central

By: J. P. Koyo

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: Los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio, aprobados en la Cum-bre del Milenio de las Naciones Unidas en 2000, recalcan la necesidad de liberar a todos los pueblos de la pobreza extrema (Naciones Unidas, 2000). De los aproximadamente 207 millones de personas en los paises de la Comunidad del Africa Meridional para el Desarrollo (SADC), se calcula que el 70 por ciento viven bajo el nivel internacional de pobreza de 2 dolares EE.UU. por dia (SADC, 2003). La situacion se agrava por el elevado indice de crecimiento de la poblacion, estimado en el 2,4 por ciento anual (SADC, 2004); la elevada tasa de infeccion por el VIH/SID A, estimada por encima del 20 por ciento de la poblacion adulta (SADC, 2003); la baja produc-cion agricola; y la creciente frecuen-cia de fenomenos climaticos extremos. La pobreza ha obligado a la mayoria de las comunidades a recurrir a la utilizacion insostenible de los recursos forestales, de los que muchos consideran poder dispo-ner libremente. Al hacerlo asi, destruyen el medio ambiente del que depende su existencia, con el consiguiente circulo vicioso de pobreza. Durante los dos ul-timos decenios la SADC ...

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Explaining Divergent Levels of Longevity in High-income Countries

By: Crimmins Em

Description: Over the past 25 years, life expectancy has been rising in the United States at a slower pace than has been achieved in many other high-income countries. Consequently, the United States has been falling steadily in the world rankings for leve...

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Puede el Protocolo Sobre Silviculture de la Comunidad Del Africa Meridional para el Desarrollo Detener las Amenazas Crecientes a Los Bosques de la Region

By: L. Mubaiwa

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: Los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio, aprobados en la Cum-bre del Milenio de las Naciones Unidas en 2000, recalcan la necesidad de liberar a todos los pueblos de la pobreza extrema (Naciones Unidas, 2000). De los aproximadamente 207 millones de personas en los paises de la Comunidad del Africa Meridional para el Desarrollo (SADC), se calcula que el 70 por ciento viven bajo el nivel internacional de pobreza de 2 dolares EE.UU. por dia (SADC, 2003). La situacion se agrava por el elevado indice de crecimiento de la poblacion, estimado en el 2,4 por ciento anual (SADC, 2004); la elevada tasa de infeccion por el VIH/SID A, estimada por encima del 20 por ciento de la poblacion adulta (SADC, 2003); la baja produc-cion agricola; y la creciente frecuen-cia de fenomenos climaticos extremos. La pobreza ha obligado a la mayoria de las comunidades a recurrir a la utilizacion insostenible de los recursos forestales, de los que muchos consideran poder dispo-ner libremente. Al hacerlo asi, destruyen el medio ambiente del que depende su existencia, con el consiguiente circulo vicioso de pobreza. Durante los dos ul-timos decenios la SADC ...

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Stability Comparison of Recordable Optical Discs - a Study of Error Rates in Harsh Conditions

By: Zheng, J.

Description: Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology

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Puede el Protocolo Sobre Silviculture de la Comunidad Del Africa Meridional para el Desarrollo Detener las Amenazas Crecientes a Los Bosques de la Region

By: L. Mubaiwa

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: Los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio, aprobados en la Cum-bre del Milenio de las Naciones Unidas en 2000, recalcan la necesidad de liberar a todos los pueblos de la pobreza extrema (Naciones Unidas, 2000). De los aproximadamente 207 millones de personas en los paises de la Comunidad del Africa Meridional para el Desarrollo (SADC), se calcula que el 70 por ciento viven bajo el nivel internacional de pobreza de 2 dolares EE.UU. por dia (SADC, 2003). La situacion se agrava por el elevado indice de crecimiento de la poblacion, estimado en el 2,4 por ciento anual (SADC, 2004); la elevada tasa de infeccion por el VIH/SID A, estimada por encima del 20 por ciento de la poblacion adulta (SADC, 2003); la baja produc-cion agricola; y la creciente frecuen-cia de fenomenos climaticos extremos. La pobreza ha obligado a la mayoria de las comunidades a recurrir a la utilizacion insostenible de los recursos forestales, de los que muchos consideran poder dispo-ner libremente. Al hacerlo asi, destruyen el medio ambiente del que depende su existencia, con el consiguiente circulo vicioso de pobreza. Durante los dos ul-timos decenios la SADC ...

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Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis

By: Department of Health and Human Services

White Black Other Year Male Female Male Female Male Female Total Years of Potential Life Lost to Age 65 1990 95 5 35 - 5 5 145 1991 75 45 -- 45 - 165 1992 85 40 -- 125 1993 115 25 - 15 -- 155 1994 40 15 -- 55 1995 85 35 - 25 -- 145 1996 190 65 35 -- 290 1997 40 45 -- 85 1998 30 - 15 -- 45 1999 190 110 15 -- 315 TOTAL 945 385 100 40 50 5 1,525 Years of Potential Life Lost to Life Expectancy 1990 396 103 38 - 21 21 579 1991 344 134 -- 65 - 543 1992 218 92 7 -- 317 1993 425 196 - 28 - 8 657 1994 301 100 -- 401 1995 280 162 18 70 -- 530 1996 542 242 39 14 -- 837 1997 283 202 -- 485 1998 311 78 24 -- 413 1999 531 387 24 -- 942 TOTAL 3,631 1,696 150 112 86 29 5,704 Table 8-3. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Years of potential life lost to age 65 and life expectancy by race and sex, U.S. residents age 15 and over, 1990-1999 indicates no deaths listed. NOTE: See appendices for source description, methods, and ICD codes....

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Determination of Car On-road Black Carbon and Particle Number Emission Factors and Comparison Between Mobile and Stationary Measurements : Volume 8, Issue 1 (06/01/2015)

By: L. Ferrero; M. Carriero; L. Drinovec; G. Močnik; I. Ježek

Description: Aerosol d.o.o., Kamniška 41, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia. We have used two methods for measuring emission factors (EFs) in real driving conditions on five cars in a controlled environment: the stationary method, where the investigated vehicle drives by the stationary measurement platform and the composition of the plume is measured, and the chasing method, where a mobile measurement platform drives behind the investigated vehicle. We measured EFs of black carbon and particle number concentration. The stationary method was tested for repeatability at different speeds and on a slope. The chasing method was tested on a test track and compared to the portable emission measurement system. We further developed the data processing algorithm for both methods, trying to improve consistency, determine the plume duration, limit the background influence and facilitate automatic processing of measurements. The comparison of emission factors determined by the two methods showed good agreement. EFs of a single car measured with either method have a specific distribution with a characteristic value and a long tail of super e...

91/441/EEC: Council directive of 26 June 1991 amending Directive 70/220/EEC on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to measures to be taken against air pollution by emissions from motor vehicles, 1991.; 98/69/EC: Directive of the European parliament and of the council relating to measures to be taken against air pollution by emissions from motor vehicles and amending Council directive 70/220/EEC, 13 October 1998.; 2008/50/EC: Directive of the European parliament and of the council on ambient air quality and cleaner air for Europe, 21 May 2008.; 715/2007/EC: Regulation (EC) No 715/2007 of the European parliament and of the council, on type approval of motor vehicles with respect to emissions from light passenger and commercial vehicles (Euro 5 and Euro 6) and on access to vehicle repair and maintenance information, 20 June 2007.; Ajtay, D., Weilenmann, M., and Soltic, P.: Towards accurate instantaneous emission models, Atmos. Environ., 39, 2443–2449, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2004.03.080, 2005.; Ban-Weiss, G. A., Lunden, M. M., Kirchstetter, T. W., and H...

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Healthy Life Expectancy in North Carolina, 1996-2000

By: Paul A. Buescher, Ph. D.

Objectives: Life tables have traditionally been used to estimate life expectancy at birth and at other ages. This study combines the life table methodology with measures of morbidity or ill health to calculate healthy life expectancy for the population of North Carolina. Methods: We use 1996-2000 mortality data to calculate life expectancies for North Carolinians and then add 1993-2000 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to estimate, by age, average years of life remaining in good perceived health, in good physical health, in good mental health, and without activity limitation. These estimates are produced for the total population, males, females, whites, minorities, white males, white females, minority males, and minority females....

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Plos Medicine : the Promise of Prevention ; the Effects of Four Preventable Risk Factors on National Life Expectancy and Life Expectancy Disparities by Race and County in the United States, Volume 7

By: Eric B. Rimm
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Health : United States, 1995

By: Department of Health and Human Services

Mortality: Between 1940 and 1970 the difference in life expectancy at birth between women and men increased from 4.4 to 7.6 years. After remaining stable in the 1970’s the difference in life expectancy between women and men decreased. In 1993 life expectancy at birth was 78.8 years for women, 6.6 years longer than for men (figure 1)....

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Plos One : Workplace Determinants of Social Capital ; Cross- Sectional and Longitudinal Evidence from a Finnish Cohort Study, Volume 8

By: Richard Fielding

Description : These findings suggest that workplace social capital is contextually patterned. Workplace demographic and employment patterns as well as the size of the work unit are important in understanding variations in workplace social capital between individuals and workplaces....

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Deaths : Preliminary Data for 2001

By: Elizabeth Arias, Ph. D.

Objectives: This report presents preliminary data on deaths for the year 2001 in the United States. U.S. data on deaths are shown by age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin. Death rates for 2001 are based on population estimates consistent with the April 1, 2000, census. Data on life expectancy, leading causes of death, infant mortality, and deaths resulting from September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks are also presented. For comparison, this report also presents revised final death rates for 2000, based on populations consistent with the April 1, 2000, census....

Contents Abstract....................................... 1 Introduction .................................... 1 SourcesandMethods ............................. 2 Datasources.................................. 2 Results....................................... 2 Trendsinnumbersandrates ...................... 2 Causesofdeath ............................... 3 Infantmortality................................. 5 References..................................... 5 ListofDetailedTables............................. 6 TechnicalNotes................................. 30...

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Plos One : Long-term Effects of Statin Treatment in Elderly People ; Extended Follow-up of the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk Prosper, Volume 8

By: Stefan Kiechl

Description : Pravastatin treatment of elderly high-risk subjects for 3.2 years provided long-term protection against CHD events and CHD mortality. However, this was not associated with any increase in life expectancy, possibly due to competing mortality with deaths from other causes. There was no evidence of long-term increased risk of cancer....

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Vermont : Controlling Tobacco Use Among Young People through Peer Outreach, Media Campaigns, Laws, And Policies

By: Department of Health and Human Services

The Vermont Department of Health’s Tobacco Control Program supports Vermont Kids Against Tobacco, which reaches out to young people in schools and other sites statewide to form groups of young people devoted to keeping themselves and their peers tobacco free. The tobacco control program also sponsors media campaign programs targeting young people, including an ongoing prevention campaign targeting young people aged 10 -- 13 years and a social norms campaign that aims to correct misconceptions about the prevalence of cigarette smoking among young people. In addition, the Vermont legislature has passed laws and policies to help reduce tobacco use by restricting smoking in the workplace, prohibiting the sale of tobacco products to people under the age of 18, and banning smoking in the common areas of all enclosed indoor places with public access, including restaurants....

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Plos One : Exit, Punishment and Rewards in Commons Dilemmas ; an Experimental Study, Volume 8

By: Tom Denson

Description : Commons dilemmas are interaction situations where a common good is provided or exploited by a group of individuals so that optimal collective outcomes clash with private interests. Although in these situations, social norms and institutions exist that might help individuals to cooperate, little is known about the interaction effects between positive and negative incentives and exit options by individuals. We performed a modified public good game experiment to examine the effect of exit, rewards and punishment, as well as the interplay between exit and rewards and punishment. We found that punishment had a stronger effect than rewards on cooperation if considered by itself, whereas rewards had a stronger effect when combined with voluntary participation. This can be explained in terms of the ‘framing effect’, i.e., as the combination of exit and rewards might induce people to attach higher expected payoffs to cooperative strategies and expect better behaviour from others....

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Ten Great Public Health Achievements — United States, 1900–1999

By: Department of Health and Human Services

Ten Great Achievements — ContinueDuring the 20th century, the health adnd life expectancy of persons residing in the United States improved dramatically. Since 1900, the average lifespan of persons in the United States has lengthened by 30 years; 25 years of this gain are attributable to advances in public health (1). To highlight these advances, MMWR will profile 10 public health achievements (see box) in a series of reports published through December 1999....

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Plos One : Life Expectancy and Death by Diseases of the Circulatory System in Patients with Bipolar Disorder or Schizophrenia in the Nordic Countries, Volume 8

By: Marianna Mazza

Description : Our data show that persons in the Nordic countries with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder have a substantially reduced life expectancy. An evaluation of the reasons for these increased mortality rates should be prioritized when planning healthcare in the coming years....

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Chronic Disease Notes and Reports Chronic Disease Notes and Reports

By: Department of Health and Human Services

The new millennium brings the nation many challenges, but none is more troubling than that of caring for an increasingly large population Americans older than 65 years. Not has the birthrate decreased since 1964, when the baby boom ended; at the same time, life expectancy has increased dramatically, from 47 years 1900 to 76 years 1990. Adults older 85 years are the fastest-growing part of the population; by 2030, they are expected to number 8.5 million. “If disease patterns stay the same, health care system will have to spend additional $400 to $500 billion to cover the costs of an older population,” James S. Marks, MD, MPH, Director, NCCDPHP. However, lifestyle changes and increased emphasis on death, but in many cases reduce the quality of life. Approximately 80% of all seniors have at least one chronic condition, and 50% have at least two. Chronic diseases are among the most prevalent, costly, and preventable of all health problems. Although the risk of disease and disability clearly increases with advancing age, chronic diseases are not an inevitable consequence of aging. In many cases, their origins are grounded in health-damag...

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Plos One : Impact of Individual-level Social Capital on Quality of Life Among Aids Patients in China, Volume 7

By: D. William Cameron

Description : This is the first report to explore the effects of social capital on QoL of AIDS patients in China. The results indicate that social capital is a promising avenue for developing strategies to improve the QoL of AIDS patients in China, suggesting that the contribution of social capital should be fully exploited, especially with enhancement of QoL through social participation. Social capital development policy may be worthy of consideration....

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Plos One : Mechanistic Insights Into Validoxylamine a 7’-phosphate Synthesis by Vlde Using the Structure of the Entire Product Complex, Volume 7

By: Eugene A. Permyakov

Description : The pseudo-glycosyltransferase VldE catalyzes non-glycosidic C-N coupling between an unsaturated cyclitol and a saturated aminocyclitol with the conservation of the stereochemical configuration of the substrates to form validoxylamine A 79- phosphate, the biosynthetic precursor of the antibiotic validamycin A. To study the molecular basis of its mechanism, the three-dimensional structures of VldE from Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. limoneus was determined in apo form, in complex with GDP, in complex with GDP and validoxylamine A 79-phosphate, and in complex with GDP and trehalose. The structure of VldE with the catalytic site in both an ‘‘open’’ and ‘‘closed’’ conformation is also described. With these structures, the preferred binding of the guanine moiety by VldE, rather than the uracil moiety as seen in OtsA could be explained. The elucidation of the VldE structure in complex with the entirety of its products provides insight into the internal return mechanism by which catalysis occurs with a net retention of the stereochemical configuration of the donated cyclitol....

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