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Plos One : the Influence of the Val158Met Catechol-omethyltransferase Polymorphism on the Personality Traits of Bipolar Patients, Volume 8

By: James D. Clelland

Description : Suffering from bipolar disorder could have an impact on personality. A greater value in harm avoidance may be a genetic marker for a vulnerability to the development of a psychiatric disorder, but not bipolar disorder particularly, while a low value in persistence may characterize affective disorders or a subgroup of bipolar patients. The association between novelty seeking scores and COMT genotype may be linked with the role dopamine plays in the brain’s reward circuits....

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Plos One : Urinary Interleukin-8 is a Biomarker of Stress in Emergency Physicians, Especially with Advancing Age — the Jobstress* Randomized Trial, Volume 8

By: Yinglin Xia

Description : The 24 hS generated a prolonged response of the immune system. Urinary IL-8 was a strong biomarker of stress under intensive and prolonged demands, both acutely and over time. Because elevated IL-8 levels are associated with cardiovascular disease and negative psychological consequences, we suggest that emergency physicians limit their exposure to 24 hS, especially with advancing age....

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Plos One : Measuring the Performance of Visual to Auditory Information Conversion, Volume 8

By: Maurice J. Chacron

Description : Conclusions:With an automated interpretability measure as a standard, more image sonification systems can be developed, compared, and then improved. Even though the measure does not test systems as thoroughly as carefully designed psychological experiments, a quantitative measurement like the one proposed here can compare systems to a certain degree without incurring much cost. Underlying this research is the hope that a major breakthrough in image sonification systems will allow blind users to cost effectively regain enough visual functions to allow them to lead secure and productive lives....

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Plos One : Cool and Hot Executive Function Impairments in Violent Offenders with Antisocial Personality Disorder with and Without Psychopathy, Volume 8

By: Carles Soriano-mas

Description : These documented impairments may help to explain the persistence of antisocial behaviours despite the known risks of the negative consequences of such behaviours....

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Plos One : Psychoacoustic Tinnitus Loudness and Tinnitus-related Distress Show Different Associations with Oscillatory Brain Activity, Volume 7

By: Berthold Langguth

Description : Different clinically relevant tinnitus characteristics show distinctive associations with spontaneous brain oscillatory power. Results support hypothesis (1), but exclusively for the tinnitus loudness derived from matching to the reconstructed tinnitus sound. This suggests to preferably use the reconstructed tinnitus spectrum to determine psychoacoustic tinnitus loudness. Results also support hypothesis (2). Moreover, hearing loss and minimum masking level correlate with oscillatory power in distinctive frequency bands. The lack of an association between psychological comorbidities and oscillatory power may be attributed to the overall low level of mental health problems in the present sample....

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Plos One : Personality and Dietary Intake – Findings in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, Volume 8

By: Aldo Rustichini

Description : Personality traits are associated with dietary intake and especially subjects with resilient personality profiles had healthier dietary intakes. These associations were stronger in women than in men....

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Plos One : Toxoplasmosis-associated Difference in Intelligence and Personality in Men Depends on Their Rhesus Blood Group but Not Abo Blood Group, Volume 8

By: Martin E. Rottenberg

Description : RhD phenotype plays an important role in the strength and direction of association between latent toxoplasmosis and not only psychomotor performance, but also personality and intelligence...

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Plos One : Affective Disorders Among Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder, Volume 7

By: James Bennett Potash

Description : The results suggest that borderline personality disorder has a stronger association with affective disorders in the bipolar spectrum than disorders in the unipolar spectrum. This association may reflect an etiological relationship or diagnostic overlapping criteria....

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Plos One : Human Fear Acquisition Deficits in Relation to Genetic Variants of the Corticotropin Releasing Hormone Receptor 1 and the Serotonin Transporter, Volume 8

By: Katharina Domschke

Description : The ability to identify predictors of aversive events allows organisms to appropriately respond to these events, and failure to acquire these fear contingencies can lead to maladaptive contextual anxiety. Recently, preclinical studies demonstrated that the corticotropin-releasing factor and serotonin systems are interactively involved in adaptive fear acquisition. Here, 150 healthy medication-free human subjects completed a cue and context fear conditioning procedure in a virtual reality environment. Fear potentiation of the eyeblink startle reflex (FPS) was measured to assess both uninstructed fear acquisition and instructed fear expression. All participants were genotyped for polymorphisms located within regulatory regions of the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1 - rs878886) and the serotonin transporter (5HTTLPR). These polymorphisms have previously been linked to panic disorder and anxious symptomology and personality, respectively. Gallele carriers of CRHR1 (rs878886) showed no acquisition of fear conditioned responses (FPS) to the threat cue in the uninstructed phase, whereas fear acquisition was ...

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Plos One : Voxel-based Morphometry in Women with Borderline Personality Disorder with and Without Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Volume 8

By: Qiyong Gong

Description : Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) showed reduced volume of amygdala and hippocampus, but similar findings are evident in Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Applying voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in a larger cohort of patients with BPD, we sought to extend earlier findings of volume abnormalities in limbic regions and to evaluate the influence of co-occurring PTSD in BPD patients. We used voxel-based morphometry to study gray matter volume (GMV) in 60 healthy controls (HC) and 60 patients with BPD. Subgroup analyses on 53 patients concerning the role of co-occurring PTSD were conducted. Additionally, regression analyses were calculated to assess the relation between borderline symptom severity as well as dissociative experiences and GMV. Differences in local GMV between patients with BPD and HC were observed in the amygdale and hippocampus as well as in the fusiform and cingulate gyrus. Co-occurring PTSD was accompanied by increased GMV in the superior temporal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Independent of cooccurring PTSD, severity of BPD symptoms predicted smaller GMV in the amygdala an...

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Plos One : Acute Stress Reduces Wound-induced Activation of Microbicidal Potential of Ex Vivo Isolated Human Monocyte-derived MacRophages, Volume 7

By: Carmen Infante-duarte

Description : Our results suggest that acute psychological stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of HMDM and that this reduction is mediated by norepinephrine. This might have implications for stress-induced impairment in wound healing....

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Plos One : Robots with Display Screens ; a Robot with a More Humanlike Face Display is Perceived to Have More Mind and a Better Personality, Volume 8

By: Mel Slater

Description : It is important for robot designers to know how to make robots that interact effectively with humans. One key dimension is robot appearance and in particular how humanlike the robot should be. Uncanny Valley theory suggests that robots look uncanny when their appearance approaches, but is not absolutely, human. An underlying mechanism may be that appearance affects users’ perceptions of the robot’s personality and mind. This study aimed to investigate how robot facial appearance affected perceptions of the robot’s mind, personality and eeriness. A repeated measures experiment was conducted. 30 participants (14 females and 16 males, mean age 22.5 years) interacted with a Peoplebot healthcare robot under three conditions in a randomized order : the robot had either a humanlike face, silver face, or no-face on its display screen. Each time, the robot assisted the participant to take his/her blood pressure. Participants rated the robot’s mind, personality, and eeriness in each condition. The robot with the humanlike face display was most preferred, rated as having most mind, being most humanlike, alive, sociable and amiabl...

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Plos One : Psychological Interventions for Patients with Coronary Heart Disease and Their Partners ; a Systematic Review, Volume 8

By: Hamid Reza Baradaran

Description : The small number of studies included in the review had generally poor methodology, as shown by the risk of bias, and were performed over 10 years ago. As only two of the seven studies resulted in modest improvements in outcomes, no firm conclusions can be drawn as to the effectiveness of such interventions in this population....

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Plos One : Long-term Impact of Earthquakes on Sleep Quality, Volume 7

By: Valérie Mongrain

Description : The psychological effects of an earthquake may be much more pervasive and long-lasting of its building destruction, lasting for years and involving a much larger population. A reduced sleep quality and an increased frequency of DNB after two years may be a risk factor for the development of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder....

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Plos One : Public Beliefs and Attitudes Towards Depression in Italy ; a National Survey, Volume 8

By: Jerson Laks

Description : Our findings indicate that depression is seen as a reaction to significant life events that should be overcome with the support of significant others or the help of health professionals (mainly psychologists). However, there are still barriers to the disclosure of depressive symptoms to PCPs, and concerns about the addictive effect of antidepressants. In the presence of a gap between people’s beliefs and what health professionals consider appropriate for the treatment of depression, a ‘‘shared decision making’’ approach to treatment selection should be adopted taking into account the patients’ preference for psychological interventions to ensure active compliance with effective treatments....

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Plos One : Cortisol Patterns Are Associated with T Cell Activation in Hiv, Volume 8

By: Alan Landay

Description : These data suggest that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis contributes to the regulation of T cell activation in HIV. This may represent an important pathway through which psychological states and the HPA axis influence progression of HIV....

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Plos One : Who Multi-tasks and Why Multi-tasking Ability, Perceived Multi-tasking Ability, Impulsivity, and Sensation Seeking, Volume 7

By: Chris Chambers

Description : The present study examined the relationship between personality and individual differences in multi-tasking ability. Participants enrolled at the University of Utah completed measures of multi-tasking activity, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. In addition, they performed the Operation Span in order to assess their executive control and actual multi-tasking ability. The findings indicate that the persons who are most capable of multi-tasking effectively are not the persons who are most likely to engage in multiple tasks simultaneously. To the contrary, multi-tasking activity as measured by the Media Multitasking Inventory and self-reported cell phone usage while driving were negatively correlated with actual multi-tasking ability. Multi-tasking was positively correlated with participants’ perceived ability to multi-task ability which was found to be significantly inflated. Participants with a strong approach orientation and a weak avoidance orientation – high levels of impulsivity and sensation seeking – reported greater multi-tasking behavior. Finally, the findings suggest that peopl...

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Plos One : Temperament Traits and Chronic Pain ; the Association of Harm Avoidance and Pain-related Anxiety, Volume 7

By: Marianna Mazza

Description : Harm Avoidance, representing temperament and trait-related anxiety, has relevance in pain-related anxiety. Assessing personality and temperament may deepen the clinician’s understanding of the pain experience and behavior in chronic pain patients...

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Plos One : Low Openness on the Revised Neo Personality Inventory as a Risk Factor for Treatment-resistant Depression, Volume 8

By: Takeo Yoshikawa

Description : Many studies have reported that depressed patients show high neuroticism, low extraversion and low conscientiousness on the NEO. Our study highlights low openness on the NEO, as a risk mediator in treatment-resistant depression. This newly identified trait should be included as a risk factor in treatment-resistant depression....

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Plos One : Long-term Occupational Stress is Associated with Regional Reductions in Brain Tissue Volumes, Volume 8

By: Marko Wilke

Description : There are increasing reports of cognitive and psychological declines related to occupational stress in subjects without psychiatric premorbidity or major life trauma. The underlying neurobiology is unknown, and many question the notion that the described disabilities represent a medical condition. Using PET we recently found that persons suffering from chronic occupational stress had limbic reductions in the 5-HT1A receptor binding potential. Here we examine whether chronic work-related stress is also associated with changes in brain structure. We performed MRI-based voxel-based morphometry and structural volumetry in stressed subjects and unstressed controls focusing on gray (GM) and white matter (WM) volumes, and the volumes of hippocampus, caudate, and putamen – structures known to be susceptible to neurotoxic changes. Stressed subjects exhibited significant reductions in the GM volumes of the anterior cingulate cortex and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Furthermore, their caudate and putamen volumes were reduced, and the volumes correlated inversely to the degree of perceived stress. Our results add to previous...

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