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Banking


A system of trading in money which involved safeguarding deposits and making funds available for borrowers, banking developed in the Middle Ages in response to the growing need for credit in commerce. The lending functions of banks were undertaken in England by money- lenders. Until their expulsion by Edward I in 1291, the most important money-lenders were Jews. They were replaced by Italian merchants who had papal dispensations to lend money at interest. In the 13th cent. credit was essential to finance commerce and major projects.

 
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The Cba and World Bank Partner for 21 St Century Training

By: The World Bank

Economics

Beam us in Tamrat. Are you there? This is a site check. These words sound like the opening iines to the next generation of a Star Trek series. like Captain Kirk calling Stony to levitate him to the spaceship Enterprise. But it is not Star Trek. irs a video-conference. Thev ware the opening words spoken wwkiy from Washington to Ethiopia, and seven other s6s In Engish-speakinAgfr ica where 175work1ngjournailstms et by vidw-mnference between January and March for a series o...

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The World Bank - Governance and Anti-Corruption June 7, 2001 : Cur...

By: The World Bank

Economics

These were some of the questions answered by some 1000 respondents in an Internet survey sponsored by the World Bank Institute, as part of the second Global Forum on Fighting Corruption and Safeguarding Integrity held in end May?and attended by some 120 ministers and 1600 experts from around the world.

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The World Bank - Governance and Anti-Corruption July 27, 2000 : Go...

By: The World Bank

Economics

July 27, 2000?How can governments and civil society best encourage institutional change by developing and applying a systematic approach to measuring governance, its determinants, and its consequences? That's the question posed by Daniel Kaufmann, Aart Kraay and Pablo Zoido- Lobaton of the World Bank in the latest issue of the IMF's quarterly magazine Finance & Development. Practical experience in many countries suggests that weak governance and slow economic development...

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The World Bank and Investigative Journalism

By: The World Bank

Economics

September 26, 2001?There is no more effective check on corrupt officials, bribe takers, embezzlers and those who waste public funds than a hard-nosed investigative journalist. In many parts of Latin America, unfortunately, they are not abundant. No more. The World Bank Institute is tapping its own knowledge, and that of media experts across Latin America to train 200 journalists in nine countries in how to dig up stories that make the corrupt tremble. Every Monday for th...

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Governance, Media, And Transparency Program, World Bank Institute

By: The World Bank

Economics

The Governance, Media, & Transparency program aims to help countries create conditions for freedom of information - referring both to the right and the ability of the media and other civil society groups to access information about the functioning of their government. Through a program of training of policy makers and officials, it aims to help countries create appropriate laws, institutions, and policies that will mandate governments to make information available. Throu...

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Guidelines : Japan-World Bank Partnership Grants

By: The World Bank

Economics

Support partnership programs and activities that build relationships between Japanese stakeholders and the Bank on key development issues, stimulate public interest in Japan for international development issues, and strengthen aid coordination initiatives.

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World Bank Advocacy on Industrial Country Trade Policies

By: The World Bank

Economics

Some agricultural products Tariffs remain high in some Protections have taken the form High protectionism in agriculture. remain constrained by heavy sectors?particularly those of of NTB, quotas, voluntary re- Tariff and NTB against clothing protection in Japan and interest of developing countries straints, antidumping, counter- and textile imports from develop- Western Europe?textiles and exporters. Tariff escalation? vailing duties, safeguards and ing countries grew. R...

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Assessing World Bank Support for Trade, 1997-2004 Geneva : Survey ...

By: The World Bank

Economics

Princeton Survey Research Associates International was retained by the Independent Evaluation Group of the World Bank to conduct in-depth interviews to assist in the assessment of the Bank?s work in the area of global trade and trade negotiations. Twenty-eight interviews were conducted with individuals associated with negotiations of the World Trade Organization in Geneva and Bern, Switzerland, between March 17 and March 24, 2005. The one-on-one interviews took place wit...

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Assessing World Bank Support for Trade, 19872004 : Lessons from th...

By: The World Bank

Economics

The literature generated by the debate on the effect of trade and related policies on country economic performance concludes that although trade offers long-term benefits for developing countries, trade liberalization alone is not sufficient for economic growth.

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Inputs, Trends, And Evolution of World Bank Trade Assistance

By: The World Bank

Economics

Until the 1980s, the Bank was project-focused, but in the 1980s and 1990s it became increasingly involved in policy reform using noninvestment loans. Lending for trade adjustment through Structural and Sector Adjustment Loans (SALs and SECALs) to address balance of payments problems accounted for 25 percent of all adjustment lending during the 1980s. Bank analytical work was also important in the policy dialogue with client countries.

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Assessing World Bank Support for Trade, 19872004 : Outcomes and Re...

By: The World Bank

Economics

Then, using a broader set of trade and macroeconomic outcomes at the crosscountry level, it compares countries that borrowed from the Bank to a control group of countries that reformed without the financial assistance of the Bank, to capture outcomes such as trade performance, export diversification, and greater integration into the global economy. Finally, the chapter examines results at the country level, drawing on case studies commissioned by IEG.

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Assessing World Bank Support for Trade, 1997-2004 : Findings and R...

By: The World Bank

Economics

Since the 1980s the Bank has committed about $38 billion to developing countries in all Regions through a diverse group of stand-alone trade adjustment and investment loans, as well as trade components of loans. It has also conducted wide-ranging trade-related analysis and supported traderelated capacity building.

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Assessing World Bank Support for Trade, 1997-2004 : Endnotes

By: The World Bank

Economics

Chapter 1: 1. Refers to either free-standing trade projects or projects with trade components exceeding 10 percent of total project costs. -- 2. The findings of several large multicountry comparative studies prepared during this period reinforced this message: Choksi and Papageorgiou (1986), Michaely and others (1991), Thomas and Nash (1991), Cooper and others (1991), and Krueger, Schiff, and Valdes (1991).

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Assessing World Bank Support for Trade, 1997-2004 : Executive Summary

By: The World Bank

Economics

The developing world is arguably more open today than at any time in recent memory. Developing countries have more than doubled their exports since the mid-1980s, helping many of them to grow steadily. Exports and imports have risen as a share of the gross domestic product (GDP) across a wide range of countries, fueled in part by China?s remarkable trade performance and the growth in services trade. Trade policies have also been significantly liberalized. Average import ...

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Assessing World Bank Support for Trade, 1987-2004

By: The World Bank

Economics

While Bank assistance was largely successful in helping to reduce distortions associated with developing country trade regimes, it was less successful in generating a dynamic and sustained export growth path, especially in Africa -- The Bank?s approach was too narrow in its focus on what mattered for jumpstarting an export push. Consequently the Bank was too optimistic about the benefits of trade and its impact on economic growth in the short-run.

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World Bank's Independent Evaluation Group Issues Report Assessing ...

By: The World Bank

Economics

Washington DC, March 22, 2006 ? The $38 billion in World Bank financing for trade programs since 1987 helped open markets, but were not as effective as anticipated in boosting exports and growth, and alleviating poverty, according to a new report issued today by the institution?s Independent Evaluation Group (IEG). According to the report, the World Bank?s strategies on trade were successful in helping countries to liberalize trade, but the impact on employment and pover...

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Assessing World Bank Support for Trade, 1987-2004 : References

By: The World Bank

Economics

Acemoglu, Daron, and Simon Johnson. 2003. ?Unbundling Institutions.? NBER Working Paper Series No. 934. Cambridge, MA. Agarwal, Manmohan, and Jozefina Cutura. 2004. ?Integrated Framework for Trade-Related Technical Assistance.? Case Study, IEG Study of Global Programs. IEG Working Paper Series. Washington, DC.

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Assessing World Bank Support for Trade, 19872004

By: The World Bank

Economics

The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed here are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Board of Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank cannot guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in the work do not imply on the part of the World Bank any judgment of the legal status of any ter...

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Economies in Transition : An Oed Evaluation of World Bank Assistance

By: The World Bank

Economics

Facilitate transition from command to market-based economy: Achieve macroeconomic stability, sound economic management -- Re-orient, strengthen public institutions -- Build market institutions and enabling environment for private initiatives -- Cushion social cost of transition...

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Oed Evaluation of World Bank Assistance to the Transition Economie...

By: The World Bank

Economics

MR. PICCIOTTO: As an incentive for you to be eloquent and brief, this session is being recorded, and what you say will be in the annals of OED. First of all, let me thank all of you for taking the time to join us at the bunching period, and it is great to have you all here. It's an important workshop for us, the first time OED is taking a look at the transition story. Transition is a very smooth and easy word??it makes it sound very simple. In fact, the process of adjust...

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