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Clinical Trials (836 Books)


Clinical trials are conducted to allow safety and efficacy data to be collected for health interventions (e.g., drugs, diagnostics, devices, therapy protocols). These trials can take place only after satisfactory information has been gathered on the quality of the non-clinical safety, and Health Authority/Ethics Committee approval is granted in the country where the trial is taking place.

 
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Assessment of Cleaning to Control Lead Dust in Homes of Children w...

By: Adrienne S. Ettinger

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: In this article we describe the assessment and control of lead dust exposure in the Treatment of Lead-exposed Children (TLC) Trial, a clinical trial of the effects of oral chelation on developmental end points in urban children with moderately elevated blood lead levels. To reduce potential lead exposure from settled dust or deteriorated paint during the drug treatment phase of the trial, the homes of 765 (98%) of the randomized children (both active and placebo...

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Fenitrothion : Toxicokinetics and Toxicologic Evaluation in Human ...

By: Jean Meaklim

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: An unblinded crossover study of fenitrothion 0.18 mg/kg/day [36 times the acceptable daily intake (ADI)] and 0.36 mg/kg/day (72 ? ADI) administered as two daily divided doses for 4 days in 12 human volunteers was designed and undertaken after results from a pilot study. On days 1 and 4, blood and urine samples were collected for analysis of fenitrothion and its major metabolites, as well as plasma and red blood cell cholinesterase activities, and biochemistry an...

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Age and Sex-Dependent Distribution of Persistent Organochlorine Po...

By: Peter Deplazes

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The colonization of urban and suburban habitats by red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) provides a novel sentinel species to monitor the spread of anthropogenic pollutants in densely populated human settlements. Here, red foxes were collected in the municipal territory of Zurich, Switzerland, and their perirenal adipose tissue was examined for persistent organochlorine residues. This pilot study revealed an unexpected pattern of contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (...

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Measurement of Pesticides and Other Toxicants in Amniotic Fluid as...

By: Dana B. Barr

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Prenatal pesticide exposures may adversely affect children?s health. However, exposure and health research is hampered by the lack of reliable fetal exposure data. No studies have been published that report measurements of commonly used nonpersistent pesticides in human amniotic fluid, although recent studies of pesticides in urine from pregnant women and in meconium indicate that fetuses are exposed to these chemicals. Amniotic fluid collected during amniocente...

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The World Trade Center Residents Respiratory Health Study : New-On...

By: Joan Reibman

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) on 11 September 2001 in New York City resulted in the massive release of pulverized dust and combustion products. The dust and smoke settled in the surrounding area, which encompassed a large residential community. We hypothesized that previously normal residents in the community surrounding the former WTC would have an increased incidence of persistent respiratory symptoms and abnormalities in screening spirometry...

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Ambient Air Pollution and Atherosclerosis in Los Angeles

By: Howard N. Hodis

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Associations have been found between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The contribution of air pollution to atherosclerosis that underlies many cardiovascular diseases has not been investigated. Animal data suggest that ambient particulate matter (PM) may contribute to atherogenesis. We used data on 798 participants from two clinical trials to investigate the association between atherosclerosis and long-term ...

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Physiologic and Symptomatic Responses to Low-Level Substances in I...

By: Michel R. Joffres

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: We conducted a pilot study using a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled exposure among 10 individuals with and 7 without reported chemical sensitivities in a dedicated testing chamber. Objectives of the study were to explore the length of the adaptation period to obtain stable readings, evaluate responses to different substances, and measure the level and type of symptomatic and physiologic reactions to low-level exposures. Reported and observed symptoms...

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Iq and Blood Lead from 2 to 7 Years of Age : Are the Effects in Ol...

By: Kim N. Dietrich

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Increases in peak blood lead concentrations, which occur at 18?30 months of age in the United States, are thought to result in lower IQ scores at 4?6 years of age, when IQ becomes stable and measurable. Data from a prospective study conducted in Boston suggested that blood lead concentrations at 2 years of age were more predictive of cognitive deficits in older children than were later blood lead concentrations or blood lead concentrations measured concurrently ...

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Lessons Learned for the Study of Childhood Asthma from the Centers...

By: Peyton A. Eggleston

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: The National Children?s Study will address, among other illnesses, the environmental causes of both incident asthma and exacerbations of asthma in children. Seven of the Centers for Children?s Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research (Children?s Centers), funded by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, conducted studies relating to asthma. The design of these studies was diverse and incl...

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The Effect of Chelation on Blood Pressure in Lead-Exposed Children...

By: Aimin Chen

Government Reference Publication

Excerpt: Studies in children suggest a weak association between blood lead concentration and blood pressure. To understand this better, we tested the strength of the association in children with elevated blood lead concentrations and whether succimer chelation changed blood pressure as it did blood lead. In a randomized clinical trial of 780 children with blood lead concentrations of 20?44 micrograms/dL at 12?33 months of age, we compared the systolic and diastolic blood...

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Mapping Coastal Aquaculture and Fisheries Structures by Satellite ...

By: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Nutrition Reference Publication

Excerpt: 1.1 BACKGROUND: THE SRI LANKA EXPERIENCE ON MAPPING INLAND AQUACULTURAL FARMS In 1999, in the framework of the assistance provided to the FAO project TCP/SRL/6712 ?Revitalization and Acceleration of Aquaculture Development? in its inventory and monitoring of shrimp farms in northwestern Sri Lanka, the FAO Services ?Environment and Natural Resources? (SDRN) and ?Inland Water Resources and Aquaculture? (FIRI) jointly conducted a pilot study with a view to develop ...

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Cruise Report Dr. Fridtjof Nansen-Survey of the Abundance and Dist...

By: Dr. Fridtjof Nansen

Nutrition Reference Publication

Introduction: The fishery research vessel ?Dr. Fridtjof Nansen? belongs to the Norwegian Agency for International Development (NORAD), and was designed and built for scientific and exploratory investigations of fishery resources of developing countries. The Institute of Marine Research, Bergen, is responsible for the scientific programme and the operation of the vessel. By an agreement between the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Oman and UNDP/FAO and NORAD the ves...

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World Health Organization : Regioinal Office for Africa ; Year 199...

By: J. Mouchet

Medical Reference Publication

Introduction A recent article by Kristensen et al. (1) suggested that measles vaccine and bacille Calmette–Guérin (BCG) vaccine might reduce mortality beyond what is expected simply from protection against measles and tuberculosis. The authors argued that measles vaccine was associated with dramatic reductions in mortality in the absence of measles disease, and that the reductions in mortality were unlikely to be due to selection factors associated with vaccination becau...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1955; Volume 13, Numbe...

By: Thomas M. Ling

Medical Reference Publication

A WHO Scientific Group on Trachoma Research (1966) stated : Trachoma in its natural state is practically always bilateral and usually symmetrical , and went on to recommend that It may be desirable in some studies to record the physi~dsi gns for each eye separately but if this is not done and if the physical signs are dissimilar in the two eyes the score [physical signs] recorded should be that of the more severely involved eye. (It should be noted that prior to this r...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1973; Volume 48; Volum...

By: J.W. Lightbown

Medical Reference Publication

Physicians in many countries are trained almost exclusively in a hospital setting, where the severer or less common illnesses predominate. The result, as Guiscafre´ et al. (pp. 434–441) point out with respect to Mexico, is that most physicians receive very little training in treating extremely common childhood diseases like acute respiratory infection (ARI) and acute diarrhoea (AD). The authors describe the activities of a clinical training centre set up in a hospital ou...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1981; Volume 59, Numbe...

By: World Health Organization

Medical Reference Publication

To assess an immunization schedule combining oral (OPV) and inactivated poliovirus vacclnes (IPV), we conducted a clinical trial in the Gambia. Oman, and Thailand Children were randomized to receive one of the follow~ngs chedules: OPVat birth, 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age: OPVat birth followed by both OPVand IPVat 6, 10. and 14 weeks of age; orplacebo at birth followed by IPVat 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age. A Iota1 of 1685 infants were enrolled: 24-week serum specimens were ...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1987; Volume 65, Numbe...

By: S.K. Lwanga

Medical Reference Publication

In order to provide an adequate source of protein for infants and children, a combination of a cereal grain and broad beans (Vicirr fava) has been suggested as a weaning food for use in the Middle Easr and North Africa, where both wheat and broad beans are grown extensively. Although the fava bcan is low in mcthionine content it is rrch in lysine (Aykroyd &Doughty, 1964), and can thus compensate for the low level of lysinc in wheat (FAO. 1955). However. there are potenti...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 1992; Volume 70, Numbe...

By: J. Mendoza Aldana

Medical Reference Publication

Abstract An abbreviated summary of a research paper, generally at the beginning of the paper. Action research A style of research in which the researchers work with the people and for the people, rather than undertake research on them. The focus of action research is on generating solutions to problems identified by the people who are going to use the results of research. Adjusted rates Terms used when results have undergone statistical transformation to permit fair comp...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 2001, Issue6, 79 (6) 5...

By: Carla Abouzahr

Medical Reference Publication

A pilot study in Bangalore to investigate the feasibility of a chemoprophylaxis trial with isoniazid is described. For a chemoprophylaxis trial, 2 basic requirements are that a large number of participants musl take the drug and that reliable estimates of the amount of drug consumed should be available. Distribution of weekly supplies of pills for sell-medication was tried and actual consumption was checked by urine examination using the Belles-Littieman filier-paper spo...

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Bulletin of the World Health Organization : 2005; Volume 83, Numbe...

By: Tony Blakely

Medical Reference Publication

Cannabinoids in The second review analysed the effectiveness of the management of pain cannabinoids in chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting amount 1366 patients in 30 randomized The discovery of cannabinoid CB, and CB, recep- controlled trials (8). Across all trials, cannabinoids tors (1, 2) and endogenous agonists (3) for these anti-emetic efficacy compared with receptors has renewed the scientific community's active and placebo. In highly erneinterest in their ther...

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