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Comparative Psychology


Comparative psychology usually refers to the study of the behavior and mental life of animals other than human beings. However, scientists from different disciplines do not always agree on this definition. Comparative psychology has also been described as a branch of psychology in which emphasis is placed on cross-species comparisons—including human-to-animal comparisons.

 
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Stable Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Microbiology of Methane F...

By: A. Enrich-prast; M. Klose; P. Claus; M. Noll; W. R. Bastos; R. Conrad

Description: Max-Planck-Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, Karl-von-Frisch-Str. 10, 35043 Marburg, Germany. Methane is an important end product of degradation of organic matter in anoxic lake sediments. Methane is mainly produced by either reduction of CO2 or cleavage of acetate involving different methanogenic archaea. The contribution of the different methanogenic paths and of the diverse bacteria and archaea involved in CH4 production ex...

Alperin, M. J., Blair, N. E., Albert, D. B., Hoehler, T. M., and Martens, C. S.: Factors that control the stable carbon isotopic composition of methane produced in an anoxic marine sediment, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 6, 271–291, 1992.; Amann, R. I., Ludwig, W., and Schleifer, K. H.: Phylogenetic identification and in situ detection of individual microbial cells without cultivation, Microbiol. Rev., 59, 143–169, 1995.; Avery, G. B., Shannon, R. D., White, J. R., Martens,...

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Controls Over Aboveground Forest Carbon Density on Barro Colorado ...

By: J. Mascaro; K. Dahlin; G. P. Asner; H. C. Muller-landau; M. Van Breugel; J. Hall

Description: Department of Global Ecology, Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford, CA, USA. Despite the importance of tropical forests to the global carbon cycle, ecological controls over landscape-level variation in live aboveground carbon density (ACD) in tropical forests are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a spatially comprehensive analysis of ACD variation for a mainland tropical forest – Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI) – and tested site factors th...

Akaike, H.: A new look at the statistical model identification, IEEE T. Automat. Contr., 19, 716–723, 1974.; Alves, D. S., Soares, J. V., Amaral, S., Mello, E. M. K., Almeida, S. A. S., Da Silva, O. F., and Silveira, A. M.: Biomass of primary and secondary vegetation in Rondonia, Western Brazilian Amazon, Glob. Change Biol., 3, 451–461, 1997.; Aplet, G. H., Hughes, R. F., and Vitousek, P. M.: Ecosystem development on Hawaiian lava flows: biomass and species composition, ...

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Where Microorganisms Meet Rocks in the Earth's Critical Zone : Vol...

By: K. Küsel; D. M. Akob

Description: Institute of Ecology, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Dornburger Straße 159, 07743 Jena, Germany. The Earth's Critical Zone (CZ) is the critical, outer shell of the Earth that provides an arena for the interplay of diverse physical, chemical, and biological processes that are fundamental for sustaining life. As microbes are the principle drivers of biogeochemical cycles, it is necessary to understand the biodiversity of the CZ unseen ...

Dumont, M. and Murrell, J.: Stable isotope probing – linking microbial identity to function, Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 3, 499–503, 2005.; Adl, M. S. and Gupta, V. S.: Protists in soil ecology and forest nutrient cycling, Can. J. Forest Res., 36, 1805–1817, 2006.; Akob, D. M., Mills, H. J., and Kostka, J. E.: Metabolically active microbial communities in uranium-contaminated subsurface sediments, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 59, 95–107, 2007.; Akob, D. M., Mills, H. J., Gihring, T....

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Methanotrophic Activity and Diversity in Different Sphagnum Magell...

By: E.S. Langelaan; C. Fritz; V. Pancotto; Y. Pan; N. Kip; H. J. M. Op Den Camp; L. Bodrossy; M. S. M. Jetten; A. J. P. Smolders

Description: Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Water and Wetland Research (IWWR), Department of Microbiology, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Sphagnum peatlands are important ecosystems in the methane cycle. Methanotrophs living in and on the Sphagnum mosses are able to act as a methane filter and thereby reduce methane emissions. We investigated in situ methane concentrations and the corresponding activity and diversity o...

Belova, S. E., Baani, M., Suzina, N. E., Bodelier, P. L. E., Liesack, W., and Dedysh, S. N.: Acetate utilization as a survival strategy of peat-inhabiting Methylocystis spp, Environ. Microbiol. Rep., 3, 36–46, 2011.; Bodrossy, L., Stralis-Pavese, N., Murrell, J. C., Radajewski, S., Weilharter, A., and Sessitsch, A.: Development and validation of a diagnostic microbial microarray for methanotrophs, Environ. Microbiol., 5, 566–582, 2003.; Buckley, D. H., Huangyutitham, V.,...

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Activity and Diversity of Methane-oxidizing Bacteria in Glacier Fo...

By: W. Liesack; B. Dam; P. A. Nauer; M. H. Schroth; J. Zeyer

Description: Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland. The global methane (CH4) cycle is largely driven by methanogenic archaea and methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB), but little is known about their activity and diversity in pioneer ecosystems. We conducted a field survey in forefields of 13 receding Swiss glaciers on both siliceous and calcareous bedrock to investigate and quantify CH4 turnover ba...

Adamsen, A. P. S. and King, G. M.: Methane consumption in temperate and subarctic forest soils: Rates, vertical zonation, and responses to water and nitrogen, Appl. Environ. Microb., 59, 485–490, 1993.; Andersen, B. L., Bidoglio, G., Leip, A., and Rembges, D.: A new method to study simultaneous methane oxidation and methane production in soils, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 12, 587–594, 1998.; Auman, A. J., Speake, C. C., and Lidstrom, M. E.: nifH sequences and nitrogen...

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Lingulodinium MacHaerophorum Expansion Over the Last Centuries in ...

By: H. A. K. Lahijani; M. Shah-hosseini; F. Chalié; P. Habibi; S. Shahkarami; J.-l. Reyss; S. A. G. Leroy; S. Haghani; K. Arpe; H. S. Nasrollahzadeh; A. Makhlough; A. Tudryn

Description: Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, West London, UK. We analysed dinoflagellate cyst assemblages in four short sediment cores, two of them dated by radionuclides, taken in the south basin of the Caspian Sea. The interpretation of the four sequences is supported by a collection of 27 lagoonal or marine surface sediment samples. A sharp increase in the biomass of the dinocyst occurs after 1967, especiall...

Dean Jr., W. E.: Determination of carbonate and organic matter in calcareous sediments and sedimentary rocks by loss on ignition: comparison with other methods, J. Sed. Petrol., 44, 242–248, 1974.; Dee, D. P., Uppala, S. M., Simmons, A. J. et al.:The ERA-Interim reanalysis: configuration and performance of the data assimilation system, Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 137, %656, 553–597, doi:10.1002/qj.828, 2011.; Deflandre, G. and Co...

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An Overview of Chemosynthetic Symbioses in Bivalves from the North...

By: K. Olu; S. M. Gaudron; M. R. Cunha; C. F. Rodrigues; S. Duperron; C. Decker

Description: Université Pierre et Marie Curie, UMR7138 (UPMC CNRS IRD MNHN), Systématique, Adaptation, Evolution, 7, quai St. Bernard, bâtiment A, 75005 Paris, France. Deep-sea bivalves found at hydrothermal vents, cold seeps and organic falls are sustained by chemosynthetic bacteria which ensure part or all of their carbon nutrition. These symbioses are of prime importance for the functioning of the ecosystems. Similar symbioses occur in other bivalve species living...

Arellano, S. M. and Young, C. M.: Spawning, development, and the duration of larval life in a deep-sea cold-seep mussel, Biol. Bull., 216, 149–162, 2009.; Arellano, S. M. and Young, C. M.: Temperature and salinity tolerances of embryos and larvae of the deep-sea mytilid mussel Bathymodiolus childressi, Mar. Biol., 158, 2481–2493, 2011.; Cary, S. C., Fisher, C. R., and Felbeck, H.: Mussel growth supported by methane as sole carbon and energy source, Science,...

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Spatial Variability of Particle-attached and Free-living Bacterial...

By: W. H. Jeffrey; F. Joux; J.-f. Ghiglione; E. Ortega-retuerta

Description: UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7621, Laboratoire d'Océanographie Microbienne, Observatoire Océanologique, 66650 Banyuls/mer, France. We explored the patterns of total and active bacterial community structure in a gradient covering surface waters from the Mackenzie River to the coastal Beaufort Sea, Canadian Arctic Ocean, with a particular focus on free-living vs. particle-attached communities. Capillary electrophoresis-single strand conformation polymorphism (C...

ACIA: Arctic Climate Impact Assessment – Scientific Report, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1046 pp., 2005.; Acinas, S. G., Rodriguez-Valera, F., and Pedrós-Alió, C.: Spatial and temporal variation in marine bacterioplankton diversity as shown by RFLP fingerprinting of PCR amplified 16S rDNA, Fems Microbiol. Ecol., 24, 27–40, doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.1997.tb00420.x, 1997.; Acinas, S. G., Antón, J., an...

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Abiotic Ammonification and Gross Ammonium Photoproduction in the U...

By: C. Fernandez; C. Muñoz; A. Rain-franco

Description: Departamento de Oceanografía and Centro de Investigación Oceanográfica en el Pacífico Suroriental (COPAS) Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160–C, Concepción, Chile. We investigated the production of ammonium via photodegradation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the coastal upwelling system off central Chile (36° S). Photoammonification experiments were carried out using exudates obtained from representative diatom species (Chaetoceros muelleri

Abboudi, M., Jeffrey, W. H., Ghiglione, J.-F., Pujo-Pay, M., Oriol, L., Sempére, R., Charriere, B., and Joux, F.: Effects of photochemical transformations of dissolved organic matter on bacterial metabolism and diversity in three contrasting coastal sites in the northwestern Mediterranean sea during summer, Microb. Ecol., 55, 344–357, 2007.; Aminot, A. and Kérouel, R.: Dosage automatique des nutriments dans les eaux marines, Editions Quae., p. 188 , 2007.; Arrigo, K., Lu...

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Lacustrine Mollusc Radiations in the Malawi Basin: Experiments in ...

By: A. Gautier; D. Van Damme

Description: Paleontological Research Unit, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281, 9000, Gent, Belgium. In Terminal Pliocene-Early Pleistocene times, part of the Malawi Basin was occupied by palaeo-lake Chiwondo. Molluscan biostratigraphy situates this freshwater lake either in the East African wet phase between 2.7–2.4 Ma or that of 2.0–1.8 Ma. In-lake divergent evolution remained restricted to a few molluscan taxa and was very modest. The lacustrine Chiw...

Agnèse, J. F. and Teugels, G. G.: The Bathyclarias-Clarias species flock. A new model to understand rapid speciation in African great lakes, C. R. Acad. Sci. III, 324, 683–688, 2001.; Barrett, M., Bishobibiri, A., and Catron, J.: Why do Lake Tanganyika gastropods have patchy distributions? The Nyanza Project 2003, Annual Report, University of Arizona, 2003.; Berthold, T.: Phylogenetic relationships, adaptations and biogeographic origin of the Ampullariidae ...

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Paleoenvironmental Imprint on Subseafloor Microbial Communities in...

By: S. Révillon; M. Guégan; M. Rabineau; A. Godfroy; K. Alain; P. Crassous; L. Droz; B. Dennielou; O. Vandenabeele-trambouze; J.-f. Ghiglione; S.-j. Jorry; J. Etoubleau; M.-c. Ciobanu; J. Laugier; P. Pignet; J. Kallmeyer

Description: Université de Bretagne Occidentale (UBO, UEB), Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer (IUEM) – UMR 6197, Laboratoire de Microbiologie des Environnements Extrêmes (LMEE), Place Nicolas Copernic, 29280 Plouzané, France. An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleontological parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasted subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Se...

Akob, D. M., Mills, H. J., and Kostka, J. E.: Metabolically active microbial communities in uranium-contaminated subsurface sediments, FEMS Microbiol. Ecol., 59, 95–107, doi:10.1111/j.1574-6941.2006.00203.x, 2007.; Alain, K., Tindall, B. J., Intertaglia, L., Catala, P., and Lebaron, P.: Hellea balneolensis gen. nov., sp nov., a prosthecate alphaproteobacterium from the Mediterranean Sea, Int. J. Syst. ...

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Microbial Methane Oxidation at the Redoxcline of the Gotland Deep ...

By: G. Jakobs; M. Labrenz; K. Kießlich; V. Thiel; C. Berndmeyer; M. Blumenberg; O. Schmale; G. Rehder

Description: Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research Warnemünde (IOW), Rostock, Germany. Methane concentrations in the stratified water column of the Gotland Deep (Central Baltic Sea) show a strong gradient from high values in the saline deep water (max. 504nM) to low concentrations in the less dense, brackish surface water (about 4 nM). The steepest gradient is present within the redoxcline (between 115 and 135 m water depth) that separates the anoxic deep p...

Axell, L. B.: On the variability of Baltic Sea deepwater mixing, J. Geophys. Res.-Oceans, 103, 21667–21682, 1998.; Bange, H. W., Bartell, U. H., Rapsomanikis, S., and Andreae, M. O.: Methane in the Baltic and North Seas and a reassessment of the marine emission of methane, Global Biogeochem. Cy., 8, 465–480, 1994.; Beal, E. J., House, C. H., and Orphan, V. J.: Manganese- and iron-dependent marine methane oxidation, Science, 325, 184–187, doi:

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Technical Note: Probabilistically Constraining Proxy Age–depth Mod...

By: M. P. Tingley; J. P. Werner

Description: Department for Earth Science and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7803, 5020 Bergen, Norway. Reconstructions of the late-Holocene climate rely heavily upon proxies that are assumed to be accurately dated by layer counting, such as measurements of tree rings, ice cores, and varved lake sediments. Considerable advances could be achieved if time-uncertain proxies were able to be included within these multiproxy recons...

Altekar, G., Dwarkadas, S., Huelsenbeck, J. P., and Ronquist, F.: Parallel Metropolis coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo for Bayesian phylogenetic inference, Bioinformatics, 20, 407–415, 2004.; Anchukaitis, K. J. and Tierney, J. E.: Identifying coherent spatiotemporal modes in time-uncertain proxy paleoclimate records, Clim. Dynam., 41, 1291–1306, 2013.; Banerjee, S., Carlin, B. P., and Gelfand, A. E.: Hierarchical Modeling and Analysis for Spatial Data, Chapman & Hall/CRC...

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Technical Note: Probabilistically Constraining Proxy Age–depth Mod...

By: J. P. Werner; M. P. Tingley

Description: Department for Earth Science and Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research, University of Bergen, P.O. Box 7803, 5020 Bergen, Norway. Reconstructions of late-Holocene climate rely heavily upon proxies that are assumed to be accurately dated by layer counting, such as measurement on tree rings, ice cores, and varved lake sediments. Considerable advances may be achievable if time uncertain proxies could be included within these multiproxy reconstructions, a...

Altekar, G., Dwarkadas, S., Huelsenbeck, J. P., and Ronquist, F.: Parallel Metropolis coupled Markov chain Monte Carlo for Bayesian phylogenetic inference, Bioinformatics, 20, 407–415, doi:10.1093/bioinformatics/btg427, 2004.; Anchukaitis, K. J. and Tierney, J. E.: Identifying coherent spatiotemporal modes in time-uncertain proxy paleoclimate records, Clim. Dynam., 41, 1291–1306, 2013.; Banerjee, S., Carlin, B. ...

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Vegetation and Climate Development on the North American Atlantic ...

By: D. R. Greenwood; F. M. G. McCarthy; K. Müller-navarra; U. Kotthoff; S. P. Hesselbo

Description: Institut für Geologie, Centrum für Erdsystemforschung und Nachhaltigkeit, Universität Hamburg, Bundesstraße 55, 20146 Hamburg, Germany. We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Sites M0027 and M0029 of IODP Expedition 313 on the New Jersey shallow shelf, east coast of North America, spanning an age range of 33 to 13 million years before present. Additionally, a pollen assemblage from the Pleistocene was examined. The palynological r...

Bakken, K. and Dale, B.: Dinoflagellate cysts in upper Quaternary sediments from Southwestern Norway and potential correlations with the oceanic record, Boreas, 15, 185–190, 1986.; Beug, H.-J.: Leitfaden der Pollenbestimmung für Mitteleuropa und angrenzende Gebiete, Verlag Dr. Friedrich Pfeil, München, 2004.; Browning, J. V., Miller, K. G., Barron, J., Katz, M. E., Kulhanek, D. K., McCarthy, F. M. G., Feigenson, M. D., Olsson, R. K., and Sugerman, P. J.: Chronology of Eo...

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Muws (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems) – an Interdisciplinary ...

By: S. Tait; H. S. Jensen; A. M. Osborn; J. B. Boxall; P. Deines; C. A. Biggs; R. Sekar

Description: ChELSI Institute, Pennine Water Group, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Sheffield, UK. Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS) is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems ...

Berry, D., Xi, C .W., and Raskin, L.: Microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems, Curr. Opin. Biotech., 17, 297–302, 2006.; Allen, M. J., Edberg, S. C., and Reasoner, D. J.: Heterotrophic plate count bacteria - what is their significance in drinking water? Int. J. Food Microbiol., 92, 265–274, 2004.; Amann, R. I., Ludwig, W., and Schleifer, K. H.: Phylogenetic identification and in-situ detection of individual microbial-cells without cultivation, Microbiol....

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Muws (Microbiology in Urban Water Systems) – an Interdisciplinary ...

By: R. Sekar; H. S. Jensen; S. Tait; A. M. Osborn; C. A. Biggs; P. Deines; J. B. Boxall

Description: ChELSI Institute, Pennine Water Group, Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, The University of Sheffield, UK. Microbiology in Urban Water Systems (MUWS) is an integrated project, which aims to characterize the microorganisms found in both potable water distribution systems and sewer networks. These large infrastructure systems have a major impact on our quality of life, and despite the importance of these systems as ...

Allen, M. J., Edberg, S. C., and Reasoner, D. J.: Heterotrophic plate count bacteria - what is their significance in drinking water? Int. J. Food Microbiol., 92, 265–274, 2004.; Amann, R. I., Ludwig, W., and Schleifer, K. H.: Phylogenetic identification and in-situ detection of individual microbial-cells without cultivation, Microbiol. Rev., 59, 143–169, 1995.; Berry, D., Xi, C. W., and Raskin, L.: Microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems, Curr. Opin. Bio...

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The Stratigraphic Importance of the Brontothere (Cf. Diplacodon El...

By: L. Tackett II; B. J. Burger

Description: Department of Geology, Utah State University, Uintah Basin Regional Campus 320 North Aggie Blvd. Vernal, UT 84078, USA. We report on the first occurrence of an early horned brontothere in the Brennan Basin Member of the Duchesne River Formation in northeastern Utah. This is the first record of a brontothere from the Brennan Basin Member. Previously, brontotheres have been reported from the higher stratigraphic La Point Member (Duchesneodus uintensis

Cook, H. J.: New Eocene titanotheres from Moffat County, Colorado, Proceedings of the Colorado Museum of Natural History, 7, 12–18, 1926.; DeBlieux, D., Foss, S., Biek, R., Kuehne, P., and Willis, G.: New Eocene fossil perissodactyls from Thousand Lake Mountain, central Utah, Abstracts with Programs Geological Society of America, 43, p. 79, 2011.; Douglass, E.: Preliminary descriptions of some new titanotheres from the Uinta deposits, Annuals of the Carnegie Museum, 6, 3...

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New Specimen of Cacops Woehri Indicates Differences in the Ontogen...

By: A. Brar; R. R. Reisz; N. B. Fröbisch

Description: Museum für Naturkunde, Leibniz Institut für Evolutions- und Biodiversitätsforschung, Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany. The Lower Permian Dolese locality has produced numerous exquisitely preserved tetrapod fossils representing members of a lower Permian upland fauna. Therein, at least nine taxa of the clade Dissorophoidea, ranging in size from the large predaceous trematopid Acheloma to the miniaturized amphibamid Doleserpeton, h...

Anderson, J. S.: Focal review: The origin(s) of modern amphibians, Evol. Biol., 35, 231–247, 2008.; Anderson, J. S. and Bolt, J. R.: New Information on Amphibamids (Tetrapoda, Temnospondyli) from Richards Spur (Fort Sill), Oklahoma, J. Vertebr. Paleontol., 33, 553–567, 2013.; Anderson, J. S., Henrici, A., Sumida, S. S., Martens, T., and Berman, D. S.: Georgenthalia clavinasica, a new genus and species of dissorophoid temnospondyl from the early Permian of Germany,...

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Hydrometeorological Effects of Historical Land-conversion in an Ec...

By: A. L. S. Swann; P. R. Moorcroft; M. Longo; K. Zhang; R. L. Bras; N. M. Levine; R. G. Knox

Description: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. This work investigates how the integrated land use of northern South America has affected the present day regional patterns of hydrology. A model of the terrestrial ecosystems (ecosystem demography model 2: ED2) is combined with an atmospheric model (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System: BRAMS). Two realizations of the structure and composition of terrestrial vegetation are ...

Albani, M., Medvigy, D., Hurtt, G. C., and Moorcroft, P. R.: The contributions of land-use change, CO2 fertilization, and climate variability to the Eastern US carbon sink, Global Change Biol., 12, 2370–2390, 2006.; Anthes, R. A.: Enhancement of convective precipitation by mesoscale variations in vegetative covering in semiarid regions, J. Clim. Appl. Meteorol., 23, 541–554, 1984.; Avissar, R. and Werth, D.: Global hydroclimatological teleconnections resulting...

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