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Comparative Psychology


Comparative psychology usually refers to the study of the behavior and mental life of animals other than human beings. However, scientists from different disciplines do not always agree on this definition. Comparative psychology has also been described as a branch of psychology in which emphasis is placed on cross-species comparisons—including human-to-animal comparisons.

 
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Picoplankton Diversity in the South-east Pacific Ocean from Cultur...

By: D. Marie; L. Garczarek; D. Vaulot; M. Viprey; A. Gobet; F. Le Gall; F. Rigaut-jalabert

Description: Station Biologique de Roscoff, UMR 7144, CNRS et Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Place G. Tessier, 29682, Roscoff, France. In late 2004, the BIOSOPE cruise sailed between the equatorial influenced waters off Marquesas islands and the nutrient enriched waters of the Chilean upwelling. Along the way, it explored the Southeast Pacific gyre centred around Easter Island, which is probably the most oligotrophic oceanic region on earth. During this cruise, we...

Andersen, R. A., Saunders, G. W., Paskind, M. P., and Sexton, J.: Ultrastructure and 18 S rRNA gene sequence for \textitPelagomonas calceolata gen. and sp. nov. and the description of a new algal class, the Pelagophyceae \textitclassis nov. J. Phycol., 29, 701–715, 1993.; Arndt, H., Hausmann, K., and Wolf, M.: Deep-sea heterotrophic nanoflagellates of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: qualitative and quantitative aspects of their pelagic and benthic occurrence, Mar. Ecol. P...

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Picoplankton Diversity in the South-east Pacific Ocean from Cultur...

By: D. Marie; L. Garczarek; D. Vaulot; M. Viprey; A. Gobet; F. Le Gall; F. Rigaut-jalabert

Description: Station Biologique de Roscoff, UMR 7144, CNRS et Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Place G. Tessier, 29682, Roscoff, France. In late 2004, the BIOSOPE cruise sailed between the equatorial influenced waters off Marquesas islands and the nutrient enriched waters of the Chilean upwelling. Along the way, it explored the Southeast Pacific gyre centred around Easter Island, which is probably the most oligotrophic oceanic region on earth. During this cruise, we...

Andersen, R. A., Saunders, G. W., Paskind, M. P., and Sexton, J.: Ultrastructure and 18 S rRNA gene sequence for \textitPelagomonas calceolata gen. and sp. nov. and the description of a new algal class, the Pelagophyceae \textitclassis nov. J. Phycol., 29, 701–715, 1993.; Arndt, H., Hausmann, K., and Wolf, M.: Deep-sea heterotrophic nanoflagellates of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea: qualitative and quantitative aspects of their pelagic and benthic occurrence, Mar. Ecol. P...

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Biochemical Characteristics and Bacterial Community Structure of t...

By: C. Dupuy; J. Caparros; P. Lebaron; R. Lami; A. Bricaud; F. Van Wambeke; J. Ras; I. Obernosterer; P. Catala

Description: Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, UMR7621; F66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer, France ; CNRS, UMR7621, F-66650 Banyuls-sur-Mer, France. The chemical and biological characteristics of the surface microlayer were determined during a transect across the South Pacific Ocean in October-December 2004. Concentrations of particulate organic carbon (1.3 to 7.6-fold) and nitrogen (1.4 to 7), and POC:PON ratios were consistently higher in the surface microlayer as compar...

Acinas, S. G., Anton, J., and Rodriguez-Valera, F.: Diversity of free-living and attached bacteria in offshore Mediterranean waters as depicted by analysis of genes encoding 16S rRNA, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 65, 514–522, 1999.; Agogué, H., Casamayor, E. O., Joux, F., Obernosterer, I., Dupuy, C., Lantoine, F., Catala, P., Weinbauer, M. G., Reinthaler, T., Herndl, G. J., and Lebaron, P.: Comparison of samplers for the biological characterization of the sea surface micro...

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Molecular Genetics and Diversity of Primary Biogenic Aerosol Parti...

By: R. Conrad; M. Klose; J. Nowoisky; U. Pöschl; V. Després; M. O. Andreae

Description: Biogeochemistry Department, Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, P.O. Box 3060, 55020 Mainz, Germany. This study explores the applicability of molecular methods for the characterization of primary biogenic aerosol (PBA) particles in the atmosphere. Samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and total suspended particulates (TSP) have been collected on different types of filter materials at urban, rural, and high-alpine locations along an altitude transec...

Amann, R., Ludwig, W., and Schleifer, K.: Phylogenetic Identification and In Situ Detection of Individual Microbial Cells without Cultivation, Microbiol. Rev., 59, 143–169, 1995.; Andreae, M., Artaxo, P., Brandao, C., Carswell, F., Ciccioli, P., da Costa, A., Culf, A. D., Esteves, J. L., Gash, J. H. C., Grace, J., Kabat, P., Lelieveld, J., Malhi, Y., Manzi, A. O., Meixner, F. X., Nobre, A. D., Ruivo, M. d. L. P., Silva-Dias, M. A., Stefani, P., Valentini, R., von Jouanne...

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The Unique Skeleton of Siliceous Sponges (Porifera; Hexactinellida...

By: H. C. Schröder; J. Li; L. Qiao; W. E. G. Müller; X. Wang

Description: Institut für Physiologische Chemie, Abteilung Angewandte Molekularbiologie, Universität, Duesbergweg 6, 55099 Mainz, Germany. Sponges (phylum Porifera) had been considered as an enigmatic phylum, prior to the analysis of their genetic repertoire/tool kit. Already with the isolation of the first adhesion molecule, galectin, it became clear that the sequences of the sponge cell surface receptors and those of the molecules forming the intracellular signal t...

Aizenberg, J., Weaver, J. C., Thanawala, M. S., Sundar, V. C., Morse, D. E., and Fratzel, P.: Skeleton von \textitEuplectella sp.: structural hierarchy from nanoscale to the macroscale, Science, 309, 275–278, 2005.; Brasier, M., Green, O., and Shields, G.: Ediacarian sponge spicule clusters from southwest Mongolia and the origins of the Cambrian fauna, Geology, 25, 303–306, 1997.; Gehling, J. G. and Rigby, J. K.: Long expected sponges from the Neoproterozoic Ediacara Fau...

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The Neutral Community Structure of Planktonic Herbivores, Tintinni...

By: M. E. Ritchie; J. Ras; J. R. Dolan

Description: Marine Microbial Ecology Group, Université Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, Laboratoire d'Océanographie de Villefranche, 06230 Villefranche-sur-Mer, France. Across a species-rich area, the SE Pacific Ocean, the community characteristics of a group of planktonic herbivores was assessed. A series of 22 stations between the Marquise Islands (7° S 142° W) and the coast of Chile (35° S 73° W) was sampled during the BIOSOPE cruise in 2004. The relationships betw...

Agatha, S., Str\^uder-Kypke, M. C., Beran, A., and Lynn, D. H.: \textitPelagostrobilidium neptuni (Montagnes and Taylor, 1994) and Strombidium biarmatum nov. spec. (Ciliophora, Oligotrichea): phylogenetic position inferred from morphology, ontogenesis, and gene sequence data, Eur. J. Protistol., 41, 65–83, 2005.; Alonso, D., Etienne, R. S., and McKane, A. J.: The merits of neutral theory, Trends Ecol. Evol., 21, 451–457, 2006.; Beers, J. R. and Stewart, G. L. : Microzoop...

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The Relevance of Particulate Organic Carbon (Poc) for Carbon Compo...

By: A. Freibauer; K. Stahr; M. Schloter; S. Fiedler; H. F. Jungkunst; B. S. Höll; M. Drösler

Description: Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation, Univ. of Hohenheim, Emil-Wolff-Strasse 27, 70599 Stuttgart, Germany. Numerous studies have dealt with carbon (C) concentrations in Histosols, but there are no studies quantifying the relative importance of all individual C components in pore waters. For this study, measurements were made of all the carbon components (i.e., particulate organic carbon, POC; dissolved organic carbon, DOC; dissolved inorganic ca...

Amann, R. I., Krumholz, L., and Stahl D. A.: Fluorescent oligonucleotide probing of whole cells for determinative, phylogenetic, and environmental studies in microbiology, J. Bacteriol., 172, 762–770, 1990.; Assmus, B., Hutzler, P., Kirchhof, G., Amann, R., Lawrence, J., and Hartmann, A.: In Situ Localization of Azospirillum brasilense in the Rhizosphere of Wheat with Fluorescently Labeled, rRNA-Targeted Oligonucleotide Probes and Scanning Confocal Laser Microscopy, Appl...

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Microbial Reduction of Iron and Porewater Biogeochemistry in Acidi...

By: D. Schulz; M. Blöthe; M. Reiche; K. Küsel; H. L. Drake

Description: Limnology Research Group, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany. Temporal drying of upper soil layers of acidic methanogenic peatlands might divert the flow of reductants from CH4 formation to other electron-accepting processes due to a renewal of alternative electron acceptors. In this study, we evaluated the in situ relevance of Fe(III)-reducing microbial activities in peatlands of a forested catchment that differed in the...

Adams, L. K., Boothman, C., and Lloyd, J. R.: Identification and characterization of a novel acidotolerant Fe(III)-reducing bacterium from a 3000-year-old acidc rock drainage site, FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 268, 151–157, 2007.; Alewell, C. and Gehre, M.: Patterns of stable S isotopes in a forested catchment as indicators for biological S turnover, Biogeochem., 47, 319–333, 1999.; Alewell, C. and Giesemann, A.: Sulfate reduction in a forested catchment as indicated by $\delt...

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Coupling of Heterotrophic Bacteria to Phytoplankton Bloom Developm...

By: U. Riebesell; R. Thyrhaug; M. Vogt; M. Allgaier; H.-p. Grossart

Description: Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department Limnology of Stratified Lakes, Alte Fischerhütte 2, 16775 Stechlin-Neuglobsow, Germany. The predicted rise in anthropogenic CO2 emissions will increase CO2 concentrations and decrease seawater pH in the upper ocean. Recent studies have revealed effects of pCO2 induced changes in seawater chemistry on a variety of marine life forms, in particular calc...

Allgaier, M. and Grossart, H.-P.: Diversity and seasonal dynamics of Actinobacteria in four lakes in Northeastern Germany, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 72, 3489–3497, 2006a.; Allgaier, M. and Grossart, H.-P.: Seasonal dynamics and phylogenetic diversity of free-living and particle-associated bacterial communities in four lakes in northeastern Germany, Aquat. Microb. Ecol., 45, 115–128, 2006b.; Archer, S. D., Stelfox-Widdicombe, C. E., Malin, G., and Burkill, P. H.: Is dime...

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Do Species Traits Determine Patterns of Wood Production in Amazoni...

By: T. R. Baker; N. Higuchi; A. Difiore; G. López Gonzalez; C. A. Quesada; S. Almeida; T. Erwin; D. A. Neill; W. F. Laurance; S. L. Lewis; Y. Malhi; H. Nascimento; A. Monteagudo; N. C. A. Pitman; L. Arroyo; J. N. M. Silva; S. G. Laurance; J. Peacock; O. L. Phillips; T. J. Killeen; J. Lloyd

Description: Earth and Biosphere Institute, School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. Understanding the relationships between plant traits and ecosystem properties at large spatial scales is important for predicting how compositional change will affect carbon cycling in tropical forests. Here, we examine the relationships between species wood density, maximum height and wood production for 60 Amazonian forest plots. Firstly, we examine how community-level...

Baker, T. R., Swaine, M. D., and Burslem, D. F. R. P.: Variation in tropical forest growth rates: combined effects of functional group composition and resource availability, Perspect. Plant Ecol., 6, 21–36, 2003.; Baker, T. R., Phillips, O. L., Malhi, Y., Almeida, S., Arroyo, L., Di Fiore, A., Erwin, T., Killeen, T. J., Laurance, S. G., Laurance, W. F., Lewis, S. L., Lloyd, J., Monteagudo, A., Neill, D. A., Patiño, S., Pitman, N. C. A., Silva, J. N. M., and Martinez, R. ...

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Fluxes of Microbes, Organic Aerosols, Dust, and Methanesulfonate O...

By: R. A. Rohde; R. C. Bay; P. B. Price

Description: Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. Using a spectrofluorimeter with 224-nm laser excitation to measure fluorescence intensity at 300-μm depth intervals, we report results of the first comparative study of concentrations of microbial cells (using the spectrum of protein-bound tryptophan (Trp) as a proxy) and of aerosols with an autofluorescence spectrum different from Trp as a function of depth in ice cores from west An...

Abram, N. J., Mulvaney, R., Wolff, E. W., and Mudelsee, M.: Ice core records as sea ice proxies: an evaluation from the Weddell Sea region of Antarctica, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D15101,doi:10.1029/2006JD008139, 2007.; Brook, E. J., Sowers, T., and Orchardo, J.: Rapid variations in atmospheric methane concentration during the past 110,000 years, Science, 1087–1091, 1996.; Bender, M., Sowers, T., Dickson, M.-L., Orchardo, J., Grootes, P., Mayewski, P. A., and Meese, D. A.: ...

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Biogeochemical Processes and Microbial Diversity of the Gullfaks a...

By: K. Knittel; M. Shovitri; A. Boetius; G. Wegener; M. Hovland; H. Niemann

Description: Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology, Bremen, Germany. Fluid-flow related seafloor structures and gas seeps were detected in the North Sea in the 1970s and 1980s by acoustic sub-bottom profiling and oil rig surveys. A variety of features like pockmarks, gas vents and authigenic carbonate cements were found to be associated with sites of oil and gas exploration, indicating a link between these surface structures and underlying deep hydrocarbon re...

Amann, R. I., Krumholz, L., and Stahl, D. A.: Fluorescent-oligonucleotide probing of whole cells for determinative, phylogenetic, and environmental studies in microbiology, J. Bacteriol., 172(2), 762–770, 1990.; Biddle, J. F., Lipp, J. S., Lever, M. A., Lloyd, K. G., Sørensen, K. B., Anderson, R., Fredricks, H. F., Elvert, M., Kelly, T. J., Schrag, D. P., Sogin, M. L., Brenchley, J. E., Teske, A., House, C. H., and Hinrichs, K. U.: Heterotrophic Archaea dominate sediment...

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Spatial Distribution and Functional Significance of Leaf Lamina Sh...

By: L. O. Anderson; R. J. Ladle; Y. Malhi; S. Almeida; T. R. Baker; G. López-gonzález; L. E. O. C. Aragão; C. A. Quesada; H. Ter Steege; N. Silva; A. M. Araujo; R. P. Salomão; N. Higuchi; A. Prieto; D. A. Neill; W. F. Laurance; R. Vásquez-m.; H. Ramírez A.; A. Monteagudo; A. C. M. Malhado; L. Arroyo; O. L. Phillips; N. C. A. Pitman; N. Butt; J. Peacock; T. J. Killeen; R. J. Whittaker; M. N. Alexiades

Description: School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford University, UK. Leaves in tropical forests come in an enormous variety of sizes and shapes, each of which can be ultimately viewed as an adaptation to the complex problem of optimising the capture of light for photosynthesis. However, the fact that many different shape strategies coexist within a habitat demonstrate that there are many other intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved, such as the differential...

Bongers, F. and Popma, J.: Leaf characteristic of the tropical rainforest flora of Los Tuxtlas, Mexico, Bot. Gaz., 151, 345–365, 1990.; Borcard, D., Legendre, P., Avois-Jacquet, C., and Tuomisto, H.: Dissecting the spatial structure of ecological data at multiple scales, Ecology, 85, 1826–1832, 2004.; Brown, V. K., Lawton, J. H., and Grubb, P. J.: Herbivory and the evolution of leaf size and shape, Philos. T. Roy. Soc. B, 333, 265–272, 1991.; Givnish, T. J.: Comparative ...

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Calcification, a Physiological Process to Be Considered in the Con...

By: M. A. Kendall; H. L. Wood; J. I. Spicer; S. Widdicombe; R. J. Twitchett; H. S. Findlay

Description: Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, West Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH, UK. Marine organisms that produce calcium carbonate structures are predicted to be most vulnerable to a decline in oceanic pH (ocean acidification) based on the understanding that calcification rates will decrease as a result of changes in the seawater carbonate chemistry thereby reducing carbonate ion concentration (and associated saturation states). Coastal seas are critical compo...

Beerling, D. J. and Berner, R. A.: Biogeochemical constraints on the Triassic-Jurassic boundary carbon cycle event, Glob. Biogeochem. Cy., 16, 1–13, 2002.; Al-Horani, F. A., Al-Moghrabi, S. M., and de Beer, D.: Microsensor study of photosynthesis and calcification in the scleractinian coral, Galaxea fascicularis: active internal carbon cycle, J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol., 288, 1–15, 2003.; Andersson, A. J., Mackenzie, F. T., and Lerman, A.: Coastal ocean CO2

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Liana Infestation Impacts Tree Growth in a Lowland Tropical Moist ...

By: O. L. Phillips; G. M. F. Van Der Heijden

Description: Ecology and Global Change, School of Geography, University of Leeds, UK. Stand-level estimates of the effect of lianas on tree growth in mature tropical forests are needed to evaluate the functional impact of lianas and their potential to affect the ability of tropical forests to sequester carbon, but these are currently lacking. Using data collected on tree growth rates, local growing conditions and liana competition in five permanent sampli...

Baker, T R., Honorio Conorado, E N., Phillips, O L., Martin, J., van der Heijden, G M F., Garcia, M., and Silva Espejo, J.: Low stocks of coarse woody debris in a~Southwest Amazonian forest, Oecologia, 152, 495–504, 2007.; Barker, M G. and Pérez-Salicrup, D.: Comparative water relations of mature mahogany (\textitSwietenia macrophylla) trees with and without lianas in a~subhumid, seasonally dry forest in Bolivia, Tree Physiol., 20, 1167–1174, 2000.; Avalos, G., Mulkey, S...

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Biogeochemical Controls and Isotopic Signatures of Nitrous Oxide P...

By: K. L. Casciotti; C. H. Frame

Description: Marine Chemistry and Geochemistry, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA. Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a trace gas that contributes to greenhouse warming of the atmosphere and stratospheric ozone depletion. The N2O yield from nitrification (moles N2O-N produced/mole ammonium-N consumed) has been used to estimate marine N2O production rates from measured nitrification rates and global es...

Alldredge, A. L. and Cohen, Y.: Can microscale chemical patches persist in the sea? Microelectrode study of marine snow, fecal pellets, Science, 235, 689–691, 1987.; Andersson, K. K. and Hooper, A. B.: O2 and H2O are each sources of one O in \chem{NO_2^-} produced from NH3 by Nitrosomonas: 15N-NMR evidence, FEBS Letters, 164, 236–240, 1983.; Andersson, K. K., Philson, S. B., and Hooper, A. B.: 18O isotope shif...

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Succession of the Sea-surface Microlayer in the Baltic Sea Under N...

By: M. Labrenz; K. Jürgens; K. Nagel; C. Stolle

Description: Leibniz Institute for Baltic Sea Research (IOW), Seestr. 15, 18119 Rostock, Germany. The sea-surface microlayer (SML) is located within the boundary between the atmosphere and hydrosphere. The high spatial and temporal variability of the SML's properties, however, have hindered a clear understanding of interactions between biotic and abiotic parameters at or across the air-water interface. Among the factors changing the physical and chemical environment...

Agogué, H., Casamayor, E. O., Joux, F., Obernosterer, I., Dupuy, C., Lantoine, F., Catala, P., Weinbauer, M. G., Reinthaler, T., Herndl, G. J., and Lebaron, P.: Comparison of samplers for the biological characterization of the sea surface microlayer, Limnol. Oceanogr.-Meth., 2, 213–225, 2004.; Agogué, H., Casamayor, E. O., Bourrain, M., Obernosterer, I., Joux, F., Herndl, G. J., and Lebaron, P.: A survey on bacteria inhabiting the sea surface microlayer of coastal ecosys...

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Testing the Spatial and Temporal Framework of Speciation in an Anc...

By: R. Schultheiß; T. Wilke; K. Schreiber; S. Trajanovski; C. Albrecht; M. Benke; T. Stadler

Description: Hydrobiological Institute Ohrid, Naum Ohridski 50, 6000 Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia. Ancient Lake Ohrid on the Balkan Peninsula is considered to be the oldest ancient lake in Europe with a suggested Plio-Pleistocene age. Its exact geological age, however, remains unknown. Therefore, molecular clock data of Lake Ohrid biota may serve as an independent constraint of available geological data, and may thus also help to refine age estimates....

Albrecht, C., Hauffe, T., Schreiber, K., and Wilke, T.: Mollusc biodiversity and endemism in the putative ancient Lake Trichonis (Greece), Malacologia, 51, 357–375, 2009.; Albrecht, C. and Wilke, T.: Testing the old lakes – old taxa assumption: freshwater limpets (Gastropoda: Acroloxidae) in the European ancient lakes, Berl. Paläobiol. Abh., 9, 7, 2006.; Albrecht, C. and Wilke, T.: Lake Ohrid: biodiversity and evolution, Hydrobiologia, 615, 103–140, 2008.; Albrecht, C., ...

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Transport and Characterization of Ambient Biological Aerosol Near ...

By: S. Kim; J. Gilberry; D. Cunningham; S. Ratnesar-shumate; J. Quizon; J. L. Santarpia; E. E. Smith

Description: National Security Technology Department, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD, USA. Bacterial aerosol have been observed and studied in the ambient environment since the mid nineteenth century. These studies have sought to provide a better understanding of the diversity, variability and factors that control the biological aerosol population. In this study, we show comparisons between diversity of culturable bacteria and fun...

Brodie, E. L., DeSantis, T. Z., Moberg Parker, J. P., Zubietta, I. X., Piceno, Y. M., and Andersen, G. L.: Urban aerosols harbor diverse and dynamic bacterial populations, P. Natl. Acad. Sci., 104, 299–304, 2007.; Cronholm, L. S.: Potential health hazards from microbial aerosols in densely populated urban regions, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 39, 6–12, 1980.; DeSantis, T. Z., Dubosarskiy, I., Murray, S. R., and Andersen, G. L.: Comprehensive aligned sequence construction f...

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Determination of the Metabolically Active Fraction of Benthic Fora...

By: A. Sabbatini; G. M. Luna; C. Morigi; A. Negri; R. Danovaro; C. Borrelli

Description: Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Science Center Jonsson-Rowland, 1W19, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY, 12180, USA. Benthic foraminifera are an important component of the marine living biota, but protocols for investigating their viability and metabolism are still extremely limited. Classical studies on benthic foraminifera have been based on direct counting under light microscopy. Typically these organisms are s...

Ainsworth, T. D., Fine, M., Blackall, L. L., and Hoegh-Guldberg, O.: Fluorescence in situ hybridization and spectral imaging of coral-associated bacterial communities, Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 72, 3016–3020, 2006.; Aubin, J. E.: Autofluorescence of viable cultured mammalian cells, J. Histochem. Cytochem., 27, 36–43, 1979.; Bentov, S. and Erez, J.: Impact of biomineralization processes on the Mg content of foraminiferal shells: a biological perspective, Geochem. Geophy....

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