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Plos One : Protective Vaccination Against Infectious Bursal Diseas...

By: Man-seong Park

Description : Here we report on vaccination approaches against infectious bursal disease (IBD) of poultry that were performed with complete yeast of the species Kluyveromyces lactis (K. lactis). Employing a genetic system that enables the rapid production of stably transfected recombinant K. lactis, we generated yeast strains that expressed defined quantities of the virus capsid forming protein VP2 of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). Both, subcutaneous as well as ...

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Plos One : Generation and Characterization of a Novel Mouse Embryo...

By: Qiang Wu

Description : The novel reporter ES cell line here described allows an accurate monitoring of Nanog’s dynamic expression in the pluripotent state. This reporter will thus be a valuable tool to obtain quantitative measurements of global gene expression in pluripotent ES cells in different states, allowing a detailed molecular mapping of the pluripotency landscape.

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Plos One : the Relationship Between Hypomagnesemia, Metformin Ther...

By: Petras Dzeja

Description : Since hypomagnesemia appears to be an independent risk factor for CVD complicating type 2 diabetes, the value of replacement therapy should be investigated further, especially in patients at high CVD risk.

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Plos One : Incidental Acquisition of Foreign Language Vocabulary T...

By: Krish Sathian

Description : First language acquisition requires relatively little effort compared to foreign language acquisition and happens more naturally through informal learning. Informal exposure can also benefit foreign language learning, although evidence for this has been limited to speech perception and production. An important question is whether informal exposure to spoken foreign language also leads to vocabulary learning through the creation of form-meaning links. Here w...

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Plos One : Expression of a Yersinia Pseudotuberculosistype VI Secr...

By: Christophe Beloin

Description : The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a macromolecular complex widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. Although several T6SS are required for virulence towards host models, most are necessary to eliminate competitor bacteria. Other functions, such as resistance to amoeba predation, biofilm formation or adaptation to environmental conditions have also been reported. This multitude of functions is reflected by the large repertoire of regulatory mechanisms show...

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Plos One : Movements and Habitat Use of an Endangered Snake, Hoplo...

By: Ulrich Joger

Description : A detailed understanding of how extensively animals move through the landscape, and the habitat features upon which they rely, can identify conservation priorities and thus inform management planning. For many endangered species, information on habitat use either is sparse, or is based upon studies from a small part of the species’ range. The broadheaded snake (Hoplocephalus bungaroides) is restricted to a specialized habitat (sandstone outcrops and nearby ...

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Plos One : Marine Phytoplankton Temperature Versus Growth Response...

By: Howard Browman

Description : ‘‘It takes a village to finish (marine) science these days’’ Paraphrased from Curtis Huttenhower (the Human Microbiome project) The rapidity and complexity of climate change and its potential effects on ocean biota are challenging how ocean scientists conduct research. One way in which we can begin to better tackle these challenges is to conduct community-wide scientific studies. This study provides physiological datasets fundamental to understanding functi...

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Plos One : Association of Shank 1A Scaffolding Protein with Cone P...

By: Karl-wilhelm Koch

Description : Photoreceptor terminals contain post-synaptic density (PSD) proteins e.g., PSD-95/PSD-93, but their role at photoreceptor synapses is not known. PSDs are generally restricted to post-synaptic boutons in central neurons and form scaffolding with multiple proteins that have structural and functional roles in neuronal signaling. The Shank family of proteins (Shank 1–3) functions as putative anchoring proteins for PSDs and is involved in the organization of cyt...

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Plos One : Dynamin-2 Regulates Fusion Pore Expansion and Quantal R...

By: Frederic A. Meunier

Description : Over the past years, dynamin has been implicated in tuning the amount and nature of transmitter released during exocytosis. However, the mechanism involved remains poorly understood. Here, using bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, we investigated whether this mechanism rely on dynamin’s ability to remodel actin cytoskeleton. According to this idea, inhibition of dynamin GTPase activity suppressed the calcium-dependent de novo cortical actin and altered the cor...

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Plos One : Fish and Mammalian Phagocytes Differentially Regulate P...

By: Stefan Bereswill

Description : Phagocytosis is a cellular mechanism that is important to the early induction of antimicrobial responses and the regulation of adaptive immunity. At an inflammatory site, phagocytes serve as central regulators for both pro-inflammatory and homeostatic anti-inflammatory processes. However, it remains unclear if this is a recent evolutionary development or whether the capacity to balance between these two seemingly contradictory processes is a feature already...

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Plos One : Noncanonical Micrornas and Endogenous Sirnas in Lytic I...

By: K. T. Jeang

Description : MicroRNA (miRNA) and endogenous small interfering RNA (endo-siRNA) are two essential classes of small noncoding RNAs (sncRNAs) in eukaryotes. The class of miRNA is diverse and there exist noncanonical miRNAs that bypass the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway. In order to identify noncanonical miRNAs and endo-siRNAs responding to virus infection and study their potential function, we sequenced small-RNA species from cells lytically infected with murine gamma...

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Plos One : Flt3 Mutations in Early T-cell Precursor All Characteri...

By: Kristy L. Richards

Description : Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL) has been identified as high-risk subgroup of acute Tlymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) with a high rate of FLT3-mutations in adults. To unravel the underlying pathomechanisms and the clinical course we assessed molecular alterations and clinical characteristics in a large cohort of ETP-ALL (n = 68) in comparison to non-ETP T-ALL adult patients. Interestingly, we found a high rate of FLT3-mutations in...

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Plos One : How to Become a Mentalist ; Reading Decisions from a Co...

By: Cristina Becchio

Description : Pupil dilation is implicated as a marker of decision-making as well as of cognitive and emotional processes. Here we tested whether individuals can exploit another’s pupil to their advantage. We first recorded the eyes of 3 opponents, while they were playing a modified version of the rock-paper-scissors childhood game. The recorded videos served as stimuli to a second set of participants. These players played rock-paper-scissors against the pre-recorded opp...

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Plos One : Ndrg2 is a Novel P53-associated Regulator of Apoptosis ...

By: Pedro Gonzalez

Description : N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) has been documented to be a pro-differentiative and anti-proliferative gene in cancer research. Our previous study found a significant NDRG2 up-regulation in reactive astrocytes of penumbra after transient focal cerebral ischemia, which was parallel to the enhancement of TUNEL-positive signals. However, it is still uncertain whether NDRG2 participates in cellular apoptosis induced by ischemia-reperfusion injury in b...

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Plos One : Surfactant Protein D Contributes to Ocular Defense Agai...

By: Alfred Lewin

Description : Dry eye disease can cause ocular surface inflammation that disrupts the corneal epithelial barrier. While dry eye patients are known to have an increased risk of corneal infection, it is not known whether there is a direct causal relationship between these two conditions. Here, we tested the hypothesis that experimentally-induced dry eye (EDE) increases susceptibility to corneal infection using a mouse model. In doing so, we also examined the role of surfac...

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Plos One : Phosphorylation and Subcellular Localization of P27Kip1...

By: Salvatore V. Pizzo

Description : The Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27Kip1) is a key protein in the decision between proliferation and cell cycle exit. Quiescent cells show nuclear p27Kip1, but this protein is exported to the cytoplasm in response to proliferating signals. We recently reported that catalase treatment increases the levels of p27Kip1 in vitro and in vivo in a murine model. In order to characterize and broaden these findings, we evaluated the regulation of p27Kip1 by ...

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Plos One : Overexpression of the Toll-like Receptor Tlr Signaling ...

By: Daniel T. Starczynowski

Description : MYD88 is a key mediator of Toll-like receptor innate immunity signaling. Oncogenically active MYD88 mutations have recently been reported in lymphoid malignancies, but has not been described in MDS. To characterize MYD88 in MDS, we sequenced the coding region of the MYD88 gene in 40 MDS patients. No MYD88 mutation was detected. We next characterized MYD88 expression in bone marrow CD34+ cells (N = 64). Increased MYD88 RNA was detected in 40% of patients. Pa...

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Plos One : Aging 2.0 ; Health Information About Dementia on Twitte...

By: Nicholas Jenkins

Description : Online social media is widespread, easily accessible and attracts a global audience with a widening demographic. As a large proportion of adults now seek health information online and through social media applications, communication about health has become increasingly interactive and dynamic. Online health information has the potential to significantly impact public health, especially as the population gets older and the prevalence of dementia increases. H...

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Plos One : a Novel Technique for Identifying the Instar of Field- ...

By: Dirk Steinke

Description : Many field studies of insects have focused on the adult stage alone, likely because immature stages are unknown in most insect species. Molecular species identification (e.g., DNA barcoding) has helped ascertain the immature stages of many insects, but larval developmental stages (instars) cannot be identified. The identification of the growth stages of collected individuals is indispensable from both ecological and taxonomic perspectives. Using a larval–ad...

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Plos One : in Vivo Magnetic Enrichment, Photoacoustic Diagnosis, a...

By: Gunnar F. Kaufmann

Description : Bacterial infections are a primary cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Bacteremia is a particular concern owing to the possibility of septic shock and the development of metastatic infections. Treatment of bacteremia is increasingly compromised by the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains, creating an urgent need for alternative therapy. Here, we introduce a method for in vivo photoacoustic (PA) detection and photothermal (PT) eradication of Sta...

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