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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Correlation Between Discharged ...

By: Akira Ito

Description : The numbers of the worms are significantly correlated with the egg counts in human clonorchiasis. It is estimated that at least 110 worms are infected in a human body with EPGs around 3,000, and egg productivity of a worm per day is around 4,000.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : the Genome Sequence of Trypanos...

By: Jane M. Carlton

Description : This study provides the first estimate of intraspecific genomic variation within T. brucei, and so has important consequences for future population genomics studies. We have shown that the T. b. gambiense genome corresponds closely with the reference, which should therefore be an effective scaffold for any T. brucei genome sequence data. As VSG repertoire is also well conserved, it may be feasible to describe the total diversity of variant antigens. While w...

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Bactericidal Activity Does Not ...

By: Christian Johnson

Description : The better bactericidal activity of daily STR+RIF and especially of STR+RPT did not translate into better prevention of relapse, possibly because relapse-freecure after treatment of Buruli ulcer is more related to the reversal of mycolactone-induced local immunodeficiency by drug treatment rather than to the bactericidal potency of drugs.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Expression and Function of MacR...

By: Albert I. Ko

Description : MIF concentrations are markedly elevated during clinical melioidosis and correlate with patients’ outcomes. In experimental melioidosis MIF impaired antibacterial defense.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Phenotypic Evidence of Emerging...

By: Sara Lustigman

Description : The results confirm that in some communities adult female worms were non-responsive or resistant to the anti-fecundity effects of multiple treatments with IVM. A scheme of the varied responses of the adult female worm to multiple treatments is proposed.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Ca...

By: Joseph M. Vinetz

Description : Our findings suggest that Campylobacter is not as benign as commonly assumed, and that there is evidence to support expanding the indications for antibiotic therapy in campylobacteriosis in children.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : the Nih-niaid Schistosomiasis R...

By: Alex Loukas

Description : A bench scientist studying schistosomiasis must make a large commitment to maintain the parasite’s life cycle, which necessarily involves a mammalian (definitive) host and the appropriate species of snail (intermediate host). This is often a difficult and expensive commitment to make, especially in the face of evertightening funds for tropical disease research. In addition to funding concerns, investigators usually face additional problems in the allocation...

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Chagas Cardiomyopathy Manifesta...

By: Helton Da Costa Santiago

Description : Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is a complex disease that is endemic and an important problem in public health in Latin America. The T. cruzi parasite is classified into six discrete taxonomic units (DTUs) based on the recently proposed nomenclature (TcI, TcII, TcIII, TcIV, TcV and TcVI). The discovery of genetic variability within TcI showed the presence of five genotypes (Ia, Ib, Ic, Id and Ie) related to the transmission cycle of Chagas diseas...

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : ‘‘it is Me Who Endures but My F...

By: Melissa Van Dyke

Description : Despite free of charge biomedical treatment, the cost burden of Buruli ulcer disease (Bu) hospitalisation in Central Cameroon accounts for 25% of households’ yearly earnings, surpassing the threshold of 10%, which is generally considered catastrophic for the household economy, and calling into question the sustainability of current Bu programmes. The high non-medical costs and productivity loss for Bu patients and their households make household involvement...

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Interference with Hemozoin Form...

By: Malcolm K. Jones

Description : The overall significant reduction in several disease burden parameters by the antimalarial quinoline methanols indicates that interference with Hz formation in S. mansoni represents an important mechanism of schistosomicidal action of these compounds and points out the heme crystallization process as a valid chemotherapeutic target to treat schistosomiasis.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Ecological Niche Modeling to Es...

By: Assaf Anyamba

Description : Our ecological niche model of the estimated probability of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus presence provides a framework for better allocation of vector control resources, particularly in locations where JEV vaccinations are unavailable. Furthermore, this model provides estimates of vector probability that could improve vector surveillance programs and JE control efforts.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Dna-sequence Variation Among Sc...

By: David Blair

Description : The date estimates are consistent with phylogeographical hypotheses describing a Pliocene radiation of the S. sinensium group and a mid-Pleistocene invasion of Southeast Asia by S. mekongi. The date estimates also provide Bayesian priors for future work on the evolution of S. mekongi. The public health implications of S. mekongi transmission outside the lower Mekong River are also discussed.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Effectiveness of the Viet Nam P...

By: Sunit Kumar Singh

Description : Our results strongly suggest that the locally-produced JE-MBV given to 1–5 years old Vietnamese children was efficacious.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Genetic Engineering of Trypanos...

By: Philippe Buscher

Description : Trypanosoma vivax is one of the most common parasites responsible for animal trypanosomosis, and although this disease is widespread in Africa and Latin America, very few studies have been conducted on the parasite’s biology. This is in part due to the fact that no reproducible experimental methods had been developed to maintain the different evolutive forms of this trypanosome under laboratory conditions. Appropriate protocols were developed in the 1990s f...

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : a Large Repertoire of Parasite ...

By: Matty Knight

Description : For many decades, invertebrate immunity was believed to be non-adaptive, poorly specific, relying exclusively on sometimes multiple but germ-line encoded innate receptors and effectors. But recent studies performed in different invertebrate species have shaken this paradigm by providing evidence for various types of somatic adaptations at the level of putative immune receptors leading to an enlarged repertoire of recognition molecules. Fibrinogen Related Pr...

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Susceptibility to Vibrio Choler...

By: Albert I. Ko

Description : Our observation that levels of serum IgA (but not serum IgG) directed at certain V. cholerae antigens are associated with protection from infection underscores the need to better understand anti–V. cholerae immunity at the mucosal surface. Furthermore, our data suggest that susceptibility to V. cholerae infection is determined by a combination of immunologic, nutritional, and genetic characteristics: additional factors that influence susceptibility to cholera remain unidentified.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : T Helper 1–inducing Adjuvant Pr...

By: Edgar Carvalho

Description : Immunostimulatory therapy is a promising approach to improving the treatment of systemic fungal infections such as paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), whose drug therapy is usually prolonged and associated with toxic side effects and relapses. The current study was undertaken to determine if the injection of a T helper (Th) 1–stimulating adjuvant in P. brasiliensis– infected mice could have a beneficial effect on the course of experimental PCM. For this purpose, ...

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Gene Expression Profiling and M...

By: Timothy G. Geary

Description : Mechanisms classically found in Old World antimony resistant Leishmania were also highlighted in New World antimony-resistant L. amazonensis. These studies were useful to the identification of resistance molecular markers.

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : Proteomic Analysis of Human Ski...

By: Malcolm K. Jones

Description : This study demonstrates that an S. mansoni ortholog of the candidate invasive peptidase of S. japonicum and T. regenti, cathepsin B2, is capable of efficiently cleaving many of the same host skin substrates as the invasive serine peptidase of S. mansoni, cercarial elastase. At the same time, identification of unique substrates and the broader species specificity of cathepsin B2 suggest that the cercarial elastase gene family amplified as an adaptation of schistosomes to human host

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Plos Neglected Tropical Diseases : a Comparison of the Sensitivity...

By: Nilanthi De Silva

Description : The McMaster is an alternative method for monitoring large-scale treatment programs. It is a robust (accurate multiplication factor) and accurate (reliable efficacy results) method, which can be easily standardized.

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