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The World Bank Operations Evaluation Department Review of National...

By: Patrick Mullen

Economics

Introduction: 1.1 The overall development objective of the World Bank?s Multi-Country HIV/AIDS Program (MAP) for the Africa Region is to increase access to HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment programs, with emphasis on vulnerable groups. The specific development objectives of each country project are to be drawn from the national strategic plans. Accordingly, ?satisfactory evidence of a strategic approach to HIV/AIDS? is one of four eligibility criteria. This is to ...

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Introduction to Social Marketing

By: Alan R. Andreasen

Economics

President Bush visits a kindergarten class in Knoxville, Tennessee; McDonald?s offers a free toy with the purchase of a hamburger; Your secretary asks for a raise; The Ministry of Health sends out a press release announcing the opening of a new patient-friendly health center; Your ?significant other? suggests that you take up yoga.

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Afghanistan National Reconstruction and Poverty Reduction the Role...

By: The World Bank

Economics

Health. Afghanistan's health indicators are among the worst in the world, particularly in the areas of child health and women's reproductive health. When reconstruction started in 2002, the following indicators were reported: an under-five mortality rate of 257, infant mortality rate of 165, and estimated maternal mortality rate of 16 (per 1,000 live births); rate of chronic malnutrition (moderate or severe stunting) around 50%; and very high rates of disability due to p...

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Committing to Results : Improving the Effectiveness of Hiv/Aids As...

By: The World Bank

Economics

In 1981, only a year after the World Bank began direct lending for the health sector, the first cases of AIDS were detected, and by 1985 it was clear that HIV/AIDS had already spread widely in parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. In the two decades since, knowledge of HIV/AIDS has grown, but the epidemic continues to spread and erode development gains, not just in Africa, but in many parts of the world. Through the end of fiscal year 2004, the Bank had committed $2.5 billion in ...

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Water and Health : In Need of Intensive Care

By: Sandy Cairncross

Economics

?The most important benefit of rural water supply improvements from the perspective of the people affected is generally the fact that water is brought closer to where they live?. There is no indication that rural populations expect health gains.?...

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The Health of Adults in the Developing World

By: Richard G. A. Feachem

Economics

THIS CHAPTER PRESENTS EVIDENCE that the consequences of adult illhealth are substantial, larger than had been supposed previously, and larger than the consequences of illness in nun-adults. The chapter explores the consequences of aduit ill-health on the health of other household members, on medical treatment costs, and on nonmedical consumption, investment, production, earnings, and income distribution. The chapter also addresses the costs of the coping mechanisms that ...

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Social Marketing Strategies to Fight Corruption

By: G. S. Kindra

Economics

It is widely accepted that one of the most critical elements of a country?s anti-corruption program is the involvement of civil society but there is less agreement on how such involvement can be encouraged. Social marketing can make an important contribution to the creation of an atmosphere in public life that discourages fraud and corruption. Drawing on lessons from the use of social marketing in public health campaigns (e.g., to reduce smoking and alcoholism, to encour...

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The Millennium Development Goals for Health Rising to the Challenges

By: Mariam Claeson

Economics

At the United Nations Millennium Summit in September 2001, 147 heads of state endorsed the Millennium Development Goals, half of which concern different aspects of health?directly or indirectly. This report assesses progress to date toward these goals and analyzes prospects for the future.The report argues that faster progress can be made with existing health interventions. It argues that extra government health spending is not enough, and that policies and institutions ...

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Review of the Passive Solar Township Health Center Pilot Project A...

By: The World Bank

Economics

This is an example of a thermal bypass at the overhang. The overhang is an extension of the floor and bypasses the insulation for the full length of the wall. This detail is a direct heat flow from the floor and wall to outside. The overhang acts like a radiator fin pulling heat out of the building.

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Public-Private Partnerships : Mobilizing Resources to Achieve Publ...

By: The World Bank

Economics

The PPP Approach Gets Results: Public-private partnerships (PPP) can achieve positive public health results and at the same time meet the individual organizational goals of the partners. Such partnerships allow considerable leveraging of each partner?s resources and unique strengths, and results are often attained in less time, at lower cost, and with greater sustainability than efforts by any single partner. From 1996 to 1999, public, private, and donor organizations in...

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Energy Plays an Important Role in Achieving the Millennium Develop...

By: Mohammad Farhandi

Economics

Energy plays an important role in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. In particular, it contributes to poverty reduction and gender equality through increases in productivity, improved access to education and information, and improved quality of services. Energy is needed for lighting, cooking, entertainment, information, water pumping, and mechanical power, all of which are paramount to improved quality of life. Lack of access to affordable, reliable, safe, and ...

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Chlorinating Small Water Supplies a Review of Gravity-Powered and ...

By: Brian Skinner

Economics

This WELL study paper focuses on the use of chlorination for disinfection of water in small water supply systems in low- and middle-income countries. The text concentrates on the use of gravity- or water-powered systems that can be used where electricity is either unreliable, or is not available - a situation that often applies to small schemes, in developing countries. The use of chlorine gas for disinfection is not considered in this paper, partly because chlorine gas ...

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Standard of Living Conditions 1989-1996 : Health Insurance Coverage

By: The World Bank

Economics

The percentage of the population with health insurance coverage was low at 9.8 per cent. Among the regions, the highest rate of coverage was 15.8 per cent in the KMA and among the quintiles, 25.8 per cent in the wealthiest consumption quintile. Health insurance coverage was almost non-existent at 0.6 per cent of persons in the poorest consumption quintile (see Table C-5). When analyzed by age, individuals 40-49 years had the highest percentage of persons covered, 20.2 pe...

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The World Bank Annual Report 2002 : Development Effectiveness

By: The World Bank

Economics

The second half of the 20th century was a period of unprecedented progress in living standards at the global level. Better technology, policies, and institutions not only spurred rapid growth in the advanced economies?they also made possible substantial improvements in the lives of poor people throughout much of the developing world. In this context, many countries have made great strides in development, but others are still mired in war, epidemic disease, or communal an...

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Responses to Avian and Human Influenza Threats : Progress, Analysi...

By: Un System Influenza Coordinator and World Bank

Economics

Between 2003 and the end of 2005, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 was reported from 15 countries, mainly in South East and Central Asia. From January to May 2006, the virus spread to more than 45 countries ?in some cases confined to wild fowl, but in several ?notably in Africa, the Middle East, Europe and the Indian Sub- Continent ?it was identified in domestic and commercial poultry populations. Hence the H5N1 influenza virus continues to spread ...

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Annex M : Methodology for Community-Level Data Collection and Analysis

By: The World Bank

Economics

Different stakeholders can have different (even opposing) perspectives on the various aspects and outcomes of a project. Hence, it is important to collect information from different stakeholders to get a complete picture of alternative perspectives. Both qualitative and quantitative tools were used to collect data for this evaluation. In each of the four project areas, a total of 30 communities were selected, and roughly 40 households were interviewed per community. Two ...

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World Development Repor2T004 Making Services Work for Poor People

By: James D. Wolfensohn

Economics

Too often, services fail poor people?in access, in quantity, in quality. But the fact that there are strong examples where services do work means governments and citizens can do better. How? By putting poor people at the center of service provision: by enabling them to monitor and discipline service providers, by amplifying their voice in policymaking, and by strengthening the incentives for providers to serve the poor. Freedom from illness and freedom from illiteracy?tw...

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National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy : Meeting E...

By: The World Bank

Economics

This is the first volume of the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) working document. After two months of nationwide consultations and debates on the earlier draft document, it was substantially revised, as comments and contributions received from stakeholders and government officials were incorporated. The volume specifies the broad strategic thrusts, targets, and instruments of NEEDS, charting the overall direction of change, the destination,...

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The World Bank Research Observer, Volume 12, No. 1 (Feb. 1997) : E...

By: Jeffrey S. Hammer

Economics

This paper applies to the health sector a method of project analysis advocated recently by Devarajan, Squire, and Suthiwart-Narueput. A health project evaluation should establish a firm justification for public involvement; establish the counterfactual?what would happen with and without the project; and determine the fiscal effect of the project and the appropriate levels of fees in conjunction with project evaluation. The evaluation should also acknowledge the fungibili...

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Low Schooling for Girls, Slower Growth for All Cross-Country Evide...

By: Stephan Klasen

Economics

Many developing countries exhibit considerable gender inequality in health, employment, and education.

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